Effects of gender reactions to stereotype advertisements – Case study in Bulgaria

Keywords: advertising stereotypes, cross-gender reactions, reactance to advertising.


This investigation has two aims: to establish the presence of stereotypes in advertisements offered in Bulgaria and to identify which stereotypes achieve positive and negative effects on consumers of both genders. Taking into account Eisend's theoretical formulation of gender roles in advertising (2019), as well as research on the cross-gender effects of stereotypes in advertising according to the most recent studies of Akestam et al. (2021), the author examines the influence achieved through three of the components – trait descriptors, physical characteristics and role behaviors. The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) show that according to trait descriptors for women, as well as role behavior for men, the highest influence was achieved in the investigated advertisements. When measuring cross-gender influences, no statistically significant differences were found between men and women in the influence of advertising containing images of the same gender. Conducted Student-Fischer’s T-tests evidenced influence achieved for advertisements with male and female images, as well as with female product images. This study can serve organizations offering products and services in Bulgaria, and its originality is expressed in the mixed consumer reactions found.


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Author Biography

Lyubomira Spasova, Trakia University, Bulgaria.

Senior Lecturer PhD at Faculty of Economics, department of Social Sciences and Business Language Training, Trakia University, Bulgaria.


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How to Cite
Spasova, L. (2022). Effects of gender reactions to stereotype advertisements – Case study in Bulgaria. Amazonia Investiga, 11(57), 111-120. https://doi.org/10.34069/AI/2022.57.09.12