From a commodity to addiction: Are mobile phones valuable commodities or sources of addiction for freshman students?




Mobile phone use, simile, addiction, mobile phone dependence.


Mobile phone use has increased exponentially on a global scale in all segments of society since the rise of the first mobile phones in 1970s. Although a wealth of research has been conducted to measure the effects of mobile phones on individuals, a few studies have been carried out to make a connection between similes and mobile phone use.  In this respect, this study examined habits of students on mobile phone use through similes at a private university located in Erbil, Iraq. Students employed food, drink, household items and people to illustrate their mobile phone dependence rate. A questionnaire, a survey and an interview were adopted to gather data. The data which were collected by employing a mixed method design were analyzed through MAXODA software program and SPSS 25. The findings of the study uncover that mobile phone are indispensable in their lives with varying reasons to take advantage of them. Additionally, students have unsubtle plans to reduce their daily usage by channeling their energy to social activities. The findings of this study can have some implications to acknowledge negative points of mobile phone use and adopt realistic strategies to break mobile phone addiction on adults systematically.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Saban Kara, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq.

Ma, Instructor, English Language Teaching Department, Faculty of Education, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq.

Yunus Yildiz, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq.

Ph.D., Assistant Professor, English Language Teaching Department, Faculty of Education, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq.


Baker, W. M., Lusk, E. J., & Neuhauser, K. L. (2012). On the use of cell phones and other devices in the classroom: Evidence from a survey of faculty and students. Journal of Education for Business, 87(5), 275–289. doi: 10.1080/08832323.2011.622814

Beneito, P., & Vicente-Chirivella, Ó. (2022). Banning mobile phones in schools: evidence from regional-level policies in Spain. Applied Economic Analysis, 30(9).

Byrne, J., & Humble, Á. M. (2007). An introduction to mixed method research. Atlantic research centre for family-work issues, 1, 1-4.

Celik, B., Bilgin, R., & Yildiz, Y. (2022a). An evaluation of positive and negative aspects of educational games: a case study in Erbil Brayaty Primary School. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 9(1), 227-243.

Celik, B., Darici, N., Yildiz, Y., & Yucedal, H. M. (2022b). Psychological Effects of Online Education during Covid 19 Process on Students: Tishk International University Case. Canadian Journal of Educational and Social Studies, 2(2), 55–69.

Chóliz, M. (2010). Mobile phone addiction: a point of issue. Addiction, 105(2), 373-374.

Daskan, A., & Yildiz, Y. (2020). Blended Learning: A Potential Approach to Promote Learning Outcomes. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 7(4), 103-108.

Fishman, E. (2021). Teaching Students to Translate Poetry. The Reading Teacher, 75(1), 119–123. doi: 10.1002/trtr.1997

Goswami, V., & Singh, D. R. (2016). Impact of mobile phone addiction on adolescent’s life: A literature review. International journal of home science, 2(1), 69-74.

Hussain, A., Hashim, N. L., Nordin, N., & Tahir, H. M. (2013). A metric-based evaluation model for applications on mobile phones. Journal of Information and Communication Technology, 12, 55-71.

Ismail, M., Fadhil, I. A., Hanoon, J. A., & Murhesh, J. K. (2022). Does Smartphone Addiction Affect Social Interaction among Families in Baghdad City? Global Journal of Public Health Medicine, 4(2), 690-697.

Kara, S. (2020). Letting Smartphones at Class Times: Does It Matter in Learning Process? International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 7(1), 78-87.

Kates, A. W., Wu, H., & Coryn, C. L. (2018). The effects of mobile phone use on academic performance: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 127, 107-112.

Leem, J., & Sung, E. (2019). Teachers' beliefs and technology acceptance concerning smart mobile devices for SMART education in South Korea. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(2), 601-613.

Liu, X., Luo, Y., Liu, Z. Z., Yang, Y., Liu, J., & Jia, C. X. (2020). Prolonged mobile phone use is associated with poor academic performance in adolescents. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(5), 303-311.

McCoy, B. (2013). Digital distractions in the classroom: Student classroom use of digital devices for non-class related purposes. Journal of Media Education, 4(4), 5–14. Retrieved from

Morgan, K. (2012). The Pros & Cons of Cell Phone Usage in College. Seattle. Retrieved from:

Mostafa, S. A., & Ahmad, I. A. (2018). Recent developments in systematic sampling: a review. Journal of Statistical Theory and Practice, 12(2), 290-310.

O'Bannon, B. W., Waters, S., Lubke, J., Cady, J. & Rearden, K. (2017) Teachers and Students Poised to Use Mobile Phones in the Classroom, Computers in the Schools, 34(3), 125-141, DOI: 10.1080/07380569.2017.1347454

Park, W. K. (2005). Mobile phone addiction. In Mobile communications (pp. 253-272). London: Springer.

Quimí, J., & Alexandra, J. (2022). Face-to-face vs online learning advantages and disadvantages (Master's thesis), La Libertad: Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena.

?enel, M. (2016). Exploring ELT Students’ Perception of Mobile Phone through Figurative Language. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 6(2), 9-25.

Shoukat, S. (2019). Cell phone addiction and psychological and physiological health in adolescents. EXCLI Journal, 18, 47.

Statista. (2022, March 2). Smartphone sales worldwide.

Smith, M. L., Spence, R., & Rashid, A. T. (2011). Mobile phones and expanding human capabilities. Information Technologies & International Development, 7(3), pp-77.

Sullivan, T., Slater, B., Phan, J., Tan, A., & Davis, J. (2019). M-learning: Exploring mobile technologies for secondary and primary school science inquiry. Teaching Science, 65(1), 13–16.

Sun, Y., & Zhang, Y. (2021). A review of theories and models applied in studies of social media addiction and implications for future research. Addictive Behaviors, 114, 106699.

Thomas, K., O’Bannon, B., & Bolton, N. (2013). Cell phones in the classroom: Teachers’ perspectives of inclusion, benefts, and barriers. Computers in the Schools, 30(4), 295–308.

Tian, L., Shi, J., & Yang, Z. (2009). Why does half the world's population have a mobile phone? An examination of consumers' attitudes toward mobile phones. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(5), 513-516.

Tindell, D. & Bohlander, R. (2011). The use and abuse of cell phones and text messaging in the classroom: A survey of college students. College Teaching, (60), 1-9.

Wei, R. (2008). Motivations for using the mobile phone for mass communications and entertainment. Telematics and Informatics, 25(1), 36-46.

Wexler, N. (2019). How classroom technology is holding students back. MIT Technology Review. Retrieved January 23, 2020 from ology-holding-students-back-edtech-kids-education

Yildiz, Y. (2019). EFL learners’ needs in preparatory schools and supplementary techniques to improve their language proficiency. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(1), 586-596.

Yildiz, Y. (2020). Reading habit and its role on students’ academic success at language preparatory school: A research on Tishk International University preparatory school students. Amazonia Investiga, 9(27), 189-194.

Yildiz, Y. (2021). Teaching English as a foreign language to 4th grade students by using technology. Canadian Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 1(2), 38-54.




How to Cite

Kara, S., & Yildiz, Y. (2022). From a commodity to addiction: Are mobile phones valuable commodities or sources of addiction for freshman students?. Amazonia Investiga, 11(56), 196–209.