Paternalist Leadership In Contemporary Education Strategies In Conflict Solution and Management

Keywords: Conflict, conflict management, paternalist leadership and conflict.


Schools are institutions where human relations are intensive due to the existence of different individuals and groups. Therefore, as in every organization, it is natural to have conflicts in schools due to different human profiles and changing views. While it is a natural situation to have conflicts, the main thing to focus on is how to manage the conflict rather than the existence of the conflict. At this point, administrators, who are leaders in schools, have big duties. The response and conflict management strategies that managers will give to the conflict are directly related to the leadership styles of the preventators. In this study, it was aimed to determine the strategies used by school administrators with paternalist leadership style, which is one of the leadership styles sought in contemporary education approach, during conflict resolution or management. In the research prepared using the qualitative method. The sample of the research consisted of 5 teachers (25 teachers) each who worked in the schools of 5 administrators working in private and public primary schools affiliated to the TRNC Ministry of Education in the academic year 2019-2020. The sample of the research is in accordance with the “purposeful sampling” approach. During the analysis of the data, “content analysis” method was used. According to the results of the research, according to the opinions of the teachers, it was understood that the most common method of conflict resolution, which the paternalist leaders pursue in the conflicts in the school environment, was “uniting those in common view”. In addition, there have been conclusions that the managers tried to find a solution to the conflict by making one-to-one interviews with the people who caused the conflict after the conflict, and that this was effective in preventing the conflict from recurring.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Nedime Karasel Ayda, University of Kyrenia/Kyrenia-Cyprus.

Doctor of the Faculty of Education, Educational Sciences Institutes, University of Kyrenia/Kyrenia-Cyprus.

Fahri Tumka, Near East University/Nicosia-Cyprus.

MsC of the Faculty of Education, Educational Sciences Institutes, Near East University/Nicosia-Cyprus.

Şengül Tumkan, Near East University/Nicosia-Cyprus.

MsC of the Faculty of Education, Educational Sciences Institutes, Near East University/Nicosia-Cyprus.

Orçun Ayda, Alasya Primary School/Famagusta-Cyprus.

School manager of the Alasya Primary School/Famagusta-Cyprus.


Akın, M. (2008). Conflict in Organi-zations, Selected Topics in Organizational Behavior. Editors: Mahmut Özdevecioğlu, Himmet Karadal). Ankara: Principle Publisher.

Arslantaş, H. İ., & Özkan, M. (2012). An Investigation of Conflict Management Strategies of The Principals As Perceived By Primary School Teachers. Kastamonu Education Journal, 20(2), 555-570.

Aycan, Z. (2001). Paternalism: Three Empirical Studies Regarding the Understanding of Management and Leadership. Journal of Management Studies 1(1), 11-22.

Aycan, Z. (2006). Paternalism: Towards conceptual refinement and operationalization. Indigenous and Cultural Psychology, 445-466. USA: Springer Science.

Balay, R. (2006). Conflict Management Strategies of Administrators and Teachers. Asian Journal of Management Cases, 3 (1), 5-24.

Balcı, A. (2005). Research in Social Sciences. Ankara: PegemA Publishing.

Balcı, A. (2010). Annotated Education Management Glossary. (2.Baskı). Ankara: Pegem A.

Baysal, A. C., & Tekarslan, E. (1996). Behavioral Sciences for Operators. Istanbul University Faculty of Business.

Bercovitch, J., Kremenyuk, V., & Zartman, I. W. (Eds.). (2008). The SAGE handbook of conflict resolution. Sage.

Bozdoğan, Z. (2004). Effective Teacher Education. Nobel Publishing, Ankara.

Bumin, B. (1990). Organization Development and Conflict Management in Business. Gazi University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences.

Cain, J., & Jolliff, B. (1998). Teamwork & Teamplay: A Guide to Cooperative, Challenge and Adventure Activities That Build Confidence, Cooperation, Teamwork, Creativity, Trust, Decision Making, Conflict Resolution, Resource Management, Communication, Effective Feedback and Problem Solving Skills. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 4050 Westmark Drive, Dubuque, IA 52004-1840.

Can, H. (2005). Organization and Management (7th edition), Ankara: Political Bookstore.

Cerit, Y., Özdemir, T. & Akgün, N. (2011). Classroom Teachers’ Opinions Toward Primary School Principal Fulfillment of Paternalistic Leadership Behaviors in Terms of Some Demographic Variables. AİBÜ Journal of Education Faculty, 11(1), 87-99.

Cheng, B.S., Chou, L.F., Yu, Wu. T, Huang, M.P. & Farh, J.L. (2014). Paternalistic Leadership and Subordinate Responses: Establishing A Leadership Model in Chinese Organizations. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 7, 89-117.

Çalışkan, N. & Özkoç, A.G. (2016). Determination of National Culture Dimensions Affecting Paternalistic Leadership Perception in Organizations. Journal of Yasar University, 11(44), 240-250.

Demirkaya, Y. (2012). Teacher perceptions about conflict management strategies and communication styles of school principals. Doctoral dissertation, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Institute of Educational Sciences.

Doğan, S. (2012). Relationship Between Leadership Styles of The Primary School Principals and Used The Conflict Resolution Strategies. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching 1(4), 226-233.

Efeoğlu, İ. E., & Özgen, H. (2006). Job Stress, Job Satisfaction and Organizational of the Work-Family Life Conflict Effects on Commitment: A Pharmaceutical Sector Research. Journal of Çukurova University Institute of Social Sciences, 16(2), 237-254.

Egeci, I. S., & Gencoz, T. (2011). The Effects of Attachment Styles, Problem-Solving Skills and Communication Skills on Relationship Satisfaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2324-2329.

Eren, E. (2004). Organizational Behavior and Management Psychology (8th Edition) İstanbul: Beta Publishing.

Erkuş, A., Tabak, A. & Yaman, T. (2010). Does The Paternalist Leadership Affect Employees' Organizational Identification and Intention to Quit? 9. National Business Congress, Zonguldak.

Ertürk, M. (1994). Causes of Conflict in Organizations, Conflict Management and A Survey Application at Erciyes University.
Journal of Erciyes University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 11.

Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (2000). A Cultural Analysis of Paternalistic Leadership in Chinese Organizations. Management and Organizations in The Chinese Context (pp. 94–127). London: Macmillan.

Fırat, S. (2010). Examination of Conflict Management Strategies Used By Secondary School Principals According to Some Perceptions According to Teacher Perceptions
Unpublished Master Thesis.

Folger, J., Poole, M. S. & Stutman, R. K. (2015). Working Through Conflict: Strategies For Relationships, Groups and Organizations. Routledge.

Gardiner, P. D. (1993). Conflict Analysis in Construction Project Management. Doctoral dissertation, Durham University.

Genç, N. (2004). Management and Organization Contemporary Systems and Approaches. Ankara: Distinguished Publisher.

Güneş, A. (2008). Difference Between Conflict Management and Management Styles of School Principals. Unpublished Master Thesis. Yeditepe University, Istanbul.

Gümüşeli, A. İ. (2001). The Relationship Between Primary School Principals 'Conflict Management Styles and Teachers' Job Satisfaction. Unpublished Master Thesis. İstanbul.

İpek, C., (2000). Organizational Conflict and Organizational Development Agents That Can Be Applied in Conflict Management, Contemporary Approaches in Management, Practices and Problems. (Ed. C. Elma, K. Demir). Ankara: Ani Publishing.

Kandemir, A. (2006). Organizational Conflict and Reconciliation Areas Between Adminis-trators and Teachers in Secondary Schools. Unpublished Master Thesis. Abant İzzet Baysal University Institute of Social Sciences.

Karahan, T. F. (2009). The Effects of a Communication and Conflict Resolution Skill Training Program on Sociotropy Levels of University Students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 9(2), 787-797.

Karasar, N. (2011). Scientific Research Method. (22. bs). Ankara: Nobel Publishing.

Karip, E. (2013). Conflict Management. Ankara: I Pegeen Academy.

Kaushal, R., & Kwantes, C. T. (2006). The Role of Culture and Personality in Choice of Conflict Management Strategy. International Journal of İntercultural Relations, 30(5), 579-603.

Kaya, T. (2008). Frequency of School Principals Using Conflict Management Methods and Teachers' Perceptions About the Effectiveness of These Methods. Unpublished Master Thesis Denizli: Pamukkale University Institute of Social Sciences.

Kılıç, S. (2006). Conflict Approaches of Private School Teachers and Conflict Management Styles Unpublished Master Thesis. Yıldız Technical University, İstanbul.

Kırçan, E., & Bostancı, A. B. (2012). Conflict Management Strategies That Administrators At Primary Schools Use At Managing Conflict. Sakarya University Faculty of Education Journal, 24(24), 45-62.

Kırel, Ç. (1997). Organizational Conflict and Power Relationshipi, Anadolu University Journal of FEAS, Cilt: 13 (1), 477-493.

Kocabaş, İ., & Karaköse, T. (2005). Principals’ Behavior and Attitudes’ Effect On The Motivation of Teachers. Turkish Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(1), 79-93.

Konak, M., & Erdem, M. (2015). According to the Teachers’ Opinions the Relationship Between the Ethical Leadership Behaviors of the Elementary School Principals and their Conflict Management Strategies. Journal of Education Management in Theory and Practice, 21(1), 69-91.

Koza, K. L., & Dant, R. P. (2007). Effects of Relationship Climate, Control Mechanism and Communications on Conflict Resolution Behavior and Performance Outcomes. Journal of Retailing, 83(3), 279-296.

Köksal, O. (2011). A Cultural Leadership Paradox: Paternalism. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Social Sciences Institude, 8(15), 101-122.

Kurt, İ. (2013). A Study on the Relationship Between Babacan Leadership and Employees' Perceptions of Creative Participation in the Workplace. Journal of Social and Humanities, 5(1), 321-330.

Küçüksüleymenoğlu, R. & Bingöl, M. A. (2014). Investigation of School Administrators' Conflict Management Methods According to the Opinions of Teachers Working in Secondary Education Institutions. Route Educational and Social Science Journal, 1(2), 39-53.

Laposı, E. O., & Fılıp, D. (2015). Efectıve Communıcatıon. Review of Management & Economic Engineering, 14(1).

Miles, H.B. ve Huberman A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. California: Sage.

Morse, P. S., & Ivey, A. E. (1996). Face to Face: Communication and Conflict Resolution in the Schools. Corwin Press, Inc., 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Niederauer, S. (2006). Personality Types and Organizational Conflict Resolution Styles of University Senior Managers. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Dokuz Eylul University Institute of Social Sciences, İzmir.

Nwogbaga, D. M., Nwankwo, O. U., & Onwa, D. O. (2015). Avoiding School Management Conflicts and Crisis Through Formal Communication. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(4), 33-36.

Özkalp, E., & Kırel, Ç. (1996). Organizational Behavior. Anadolu University Publications.

Özkan, Y. (2014). Examining the Relationship Between School Administrators' Leadership Styles and Effectiveness Levels of Schools.
Unpublished Master Thesis. Mevlana University, Konya, Turkey.

Özkoç, A. G. & Çalışkan, N. (2016). Determination of National Culture Dimensions Affecting Paternalistic Leadership Perception in Organizations. Journal of Yasar University, 11(44).

Özmen, F., & Aküzüm, C. (2010). The Attitudes Towards Conflict in the Cultural Orientation of Schools and Leadership Behaviors of Principals in the Management of Interpersonal Conflicts. Journal of Social and Humanities, 2(2), 78-83.

Özmen, F., Aküzüm, C., & Aküzüm, L. (2011). According to the Views of School Principals, the Attitudes of the School Members Towards the Results of the Conflicts. Journal of Dicle University Ziya Gökalp Faculty of Education, (16), 86-100.

Öztaş, U. (2005). The Effect of Gender Factor in Organizational Conflict and Management, Master Thesis, Akdeniz University Institute of Social Sciences, Antalya.

Rahim, M. A. (1992). Managing Conflict İn Organizations. Praeger: Connecticut.

Rahim, M. A. (2002). Toward A Theory of Managing Organizational Conflict. The International Journal of Confl ict Management, 13 (3), 206-235.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. (2003). Essentials of Organizational Behavior (Vol.7). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Sezgül, İ. (2010). Leadership and Ethics: An Evaluation in Context of Traditional, Modern and Postmodern Leadership Definitions. Journal of Social Sciences, 4(7), 239-251.

Sığrı, Ü., & Gürbüz, S. (2014). Organizational Behavior. Istanbul: Beta Publishing.

Stroh, L.K. and at all. (2002). Organizational Behavior. Third Editon, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Süküt, S. (2008). Comparison of Primary School Administrators and Teachers' Conflict Resoluti on Strategies. Master Thesis, Yeditepe University, Institute of Social Sciences.

Şahan, İ. (2006). Conflict Management Styles of School Principals and Its Effects on Teacher Stress Levels. Master Thesis, Yeditepe University, Institute of Social Sciences.

Şendur, F. E. (2006). Organizational Conflict and Conflict Management. Master's Thesis, Age University Institute of Social Sciences.

Şirin, E. F. (2008). Investigation of Leadership Styles and Conflict Management Strategies of School of Physical Education and Sports Administrators. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Gazi University, Ankara.

Titrek, O., Maral, M., & Kızılkaya, D. B. (2015). Investigating Primary School Teachers’ Perception of Conflict Management Strategies Used By Principals. Journal of Human Sciences, 12(2), 1734-1755.

Tjosvold, D., Wong, A. S., ve Feng Chen, N. Y. (2014). Constructively Managing Conflicts in Organizations. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav., 1(1), 545-568.

Türnüklü, A. (2000). Qualitative Research Technique That Can Be Used Effectively in Educational Science Research: Interview. Education Management in Theory and Practice, 24(24), 543-559.

Uğurlu, F. (2001). Conflict Management Styles of Primary School Principals. Unpublished Master Thesis. Dokuz Eylül University, Institute of Educational Sciences, İzmir

Ural, A. (1997). Primary School Principals' Methods of Managing Conflicts with Teachers. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Abant İzzet Baysal University, Bolu.

Şentürk, N. (2006). Types of Conflicts in Primary Schools and Solution Methods Followed by Administrators. Unpublished Master Thesis. Trakya Üniversitesi, Edirne.

Wang, G., Jing, R., & Klossek, A. (2007). Antecedents and Management of Conflict. International Journal of Conflict Management.

Westwood, R. (1997). Harmony and Patriarchy: The Cultural Basis for Paternalist Headship Among The Overseas Chinese. Organization Studies, 18(3), 445-480.

Yıldırım, A. ve Simsek, H. (2018). Qualitative Research Methods in The Social Sciences. Ankara: Distinguished Publishing.

Zornoza, A., Ripoll, P., & Peiro, J. M. (2002). Conflict Management in Groups That Work in Two Different Communication Contexts: Face-To-Face and Computer-Mediated Commu-nication. Small Group Research, 33(5), 481-508.
How to Cite
Karasel Ayda, N., Tumka, F., Tumkan, Şengül, & Ayda, O. (2020). Paternalist Leadership In Contemporary Education Strategies In Conflict Solution and Management. Amazonia Investiga, 9(30), 84-98.