Self-efficacy Sources among General Education Teachers in Inclusive Schools: A Cross-Cultural Study
The inclusion of students with special needs in general education classes has become a goal that all educational systems worldwide strive to achieve it. The inclusion of special needs has many benefits, whether for special needs students or regular students. The current study aims to reveal the differences in the self-efficacy among general education teachers in both the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Arab Republic of Egypt. It aims also to reveal the sources of this self-efficacy in both countries. The core study sample consisted of (96) Saudi teachers and (88) Egyptian teachers. The researcher used the teachers 'self-efficacy scale and the teachers' self-efficacy sources scale. The results of the study indicated that there is a significant difference between the average scores of the total self-efficacy and its sub-dimensions between the Saudi and Egyptian sample for the outperform of The Egyptian teachers. It indicated that the source of the mastery experience was a significant predictive of the self-efficacy of the Saudi teachers, and it explained 53% of the variation in self-efficacy. It also indicated that the mastery experience was a significant predictive of the self-efficacy of the Egyptian teachers, and it explained 13% of the variance in self-efficacy.
Anderson, R., Greene, M., & Loewen, P. (1988). Relationships among teachers’ and students’ thinking skills, sense of efficacy, and student achievement. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 34(2), 148-165.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Comp. ISBN 0-7167-2850-8
Berry, R. A. W. (2010). Pre-service and early career teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion, instructional accommodations, and fairness: Three profiles. The Teacher Educator, 45, 75-95.
Billingsley, B., Carlson, E., & Klein, S. (2004). The working conditions and induction support of early career special educators. Exceptional Children, 70(3), 333–347.
Black-Hawkins, K. (2010). The framework for participation: a research tool for exploring the relationship between achievement and inclusion in schools. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 33(1), 21–40.
Boyer, L., & Gillespie, P. (2000). Keeping the committed. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33, 10–15.
Bruce, C. D. & Ross, J. A. (2008). A model for increasing reform implementation and teacher efficacy: Teacher peer coaching in grade 3 and 6 mathematics. Canadian Journal of Education, 31(2), 346- 370.
De Boer, A. A., Pijl, S. J., & Minnaert, A. E. M. G. (2011). Regular primary school teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education: A review of the literature. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(3), 331–353.
Donald, D., Lazarus, S., & Lolwana, P. (2010). Educational psychology in social context: Ecosystemic applications in southern Africa (4th ed.). Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
Emam, M.M. & Al-Mahd, Y.F. (2019).Teachers’ efficacy for inclusive practices in the Sultanate of Oman: Effect of gender and teaching experience. School Psychology International, 0 (0), 1-24.
Fernandez-Rio, J., Cecchini, J.A., Méndez-Gimenez, A., Mendez-Alonso, D. & Prieto, J.A. (2017). Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure. Front. Psychol. 8, 22.
Forlin, C., Chambers, D., Loreman, T., Deppeler, J., & Sharma, U. (2013). Inclusive education for students with disability: A review of the best evidence in relation to theory and practice. The Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth (ARACY).
Forlin, C., Cedillo, I.G., Romerro-Contreras, S., Fletcher, T., & Hernandez , H.J. (2010). Inclusion in Mexico: Ensuring supportive attitudes by newly graduated teachers. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 14 (7), 723-739.
Friend, M. & Bursuck, W. D. (2009). Including Students with Special Needs: A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers (5th Ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Gaskill, P. J., Woolfolk -Hoy, A. (2002). Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning: The Dynamic Duo in School Performance. USA: Elsevier Science.
Goddard, R. D., & Goddard, Y. L. (2001). A multilevel analysis of teacher and collective efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 807–818.
Haskell, D. H. (2000). Building bridges between Science and Special Education. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 4 (3).
Hehir, T., Grindal, T., Freeman, B., Lamoreau, R., Borquaye, Y. & Burke, S. (2017). A summary of the evidence on inclusive education. Report prepared for Instituto Alana, in partnership with ABT Associates.
Heine, S. J., and Hamamura, T. (2007). In search of East Asian self-enhancement. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 11, 4–27.
Henson, R. K. (2002). From adolescent angst to adulthood: Substantive implications and measurement dilemmas in the development of teacher efficacy research. Educational Psychologist, 37(3), 137–150.
Holzberger, D., Philipp, A., & Kunter, M. (2013). How Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Is Related to Instructional Quality: A Longitudinal Analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology,105(3), 774-786.
Jennett, H. K., Harris, S. L., & Mesibov, G. B. (2003). Commitment to philosophy, teacher efficacy, and burnout among teachers of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 583–593
Kalambouka, A., Farrell, P., Dyson, A., & Kaplan, I. (2007). The impact of placing pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools on the achievement of their peers. Educational Research, 49, 365–382.
Klassen, R., & Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects of Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction: Teacher Gender, Years of Experience, and Job Stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 741-756.
Klassen, R. M. (2004b). Optimism and realism: A review of self-efficacy from a cross-cultural perspective. International Journal of Psychology, 39(3), 205-230
Kurman, J. (2003). Why is self-enhancement low in certain collectivist cultures? An investigation of two competing explanations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 496-510.
Kuyini, A. B., I. Desai & U. Sharma. (2018).Teachers‟ self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes and concerns about implementing inclusive education in Ghana. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 0(0), 1-18. DOI: 10.1080/13603116.2018.1544298
Kuyini, A. B., & Desai, I. (2008). Providing to students with special needs in inclusive classrooms in Ghana: Issues and challenges. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 4(1), 22 -38.
Lent, R. W., Lopez, F. G., & Bieschke, K. (1991). Mathematics self-efficacy: Sources and relation to science-based career choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 424-430.
Leyser, Y., Zeiger, T., & Romi, S. (2011). Changes in Self-efficacy of Prospective Special and General Education Teachers: Implication for Inclusive Education. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 58 (3), 241–255.
Loreman, T., Sharma, U., & Forlin, C. (2013). Do pre-service teachers feel ready to teach in inclusive classrooms? A four-country study of teaching self-efficacy. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 38 (1), Article 3.
Malinen, O.P., Savolainen, H., & Xu, J. (2012). Beijing in-service teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusive education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 526–534.
Malone, D. M., Gallagher, P. A., & Long, S. R. (2001). General education teachers' attitudes and perceptions of teamwork supporting children with developmental concerns. Early Education and Development, 12(4), 577-592.
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224-253.
Meijer, C.J. & Foster, S.F. (1988) The Effect of Teacher Self-efficacy on Referral Chance. Journal of Special Education, 22(3), pp. 378-385.
Miesera, S., & Gebhardt, M. (2018). Inclusive vocational schools in Canada and Germany. A comparison of vocational pre-service teachers’ attitudes, self-efficacy and experiences towards inclusive education. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 33(5), 707–722.
Milner, H. R. (2002). A case study of an experienced teacher’s self efficacy and persistence through crisis situations: Theoretical and practical considerations. The High School Journal, 86, 28–35.
Morris, D. B., Usher, E. L., & Chen, J. A. (2017). Reconceptualizing the sources of teaching self-efficacy: a critical review of emerging literature. Educational Psychology Review, 29(4), 795–833.
Parnell, A. (2017). Building Implementation Capacity for Inclusive Education in Egypt: An Approach to Quality Education for All. Egypt: The American University in Cairo.
URL: http://schools.aucegypt.edu/GSE/Documents/AUC%20Inclusive%20Education%20Concep t%20Paper%205-17-%20SS.docx.pdf
Rock, M. L., Gregg, M., Ellis, E. & Gable, R. A. (2008). Reach: a framework for differentiating classroom instruction. Preventing School Failure, 52 (2), 31-47.
Rose, D. H., Gravel, J. W., & Gordon, D. (2014). Universal design for learning. In L. Florian (Ed.), SAGE handbook of special education (2nd ed., pp. 475491). London: SAGE.
Ross, J. A., & Bruce, C. (2007). Self-assessment and professional growth: The case of a grade 8 mathematics teacher. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(2), 146-159.
Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17, 51–65.
Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monograph, 80 (609).
Ruijs, N. M., & Peetsma, T. T. D. (2009). Effects of inclusion on students with and without special educational needs reviewed. Educational Research Review, 4(2), 67–79.
DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j. edurev.2009.02.002
Savolainen, H., Engelbrecht, P., Nel, M., & Malinen, O. P. (2012). Understanding teachers’ attitudes and self-efficacy in inclusive education: implications for pre-service and in-service teacher education. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 27(1), 51–68.
Scheuermann, B., Webber, J., Boutot, EA., Goodwin, M. (2003). Problems with personnel preparation in autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 18,197–206
Schiefele, U., & Schaffner, E. (2015). Teacher interests, mastery goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of instructional practices and student motivation. Science Direct, 42, 159-171.
Schwarzer, R. & Hallum, S. (2008). Perceived teacher self-efficacy as a predictor of job stress and burnout: Mediation analyses. Applied Psychology: An International Review (Special Issue: Health and Well-Being, 57, 152–171.
Sharma, U., Aiello, P., Pace, E.M., Round, P., & Subban, P. (2018). In-service teachers’ attitudes, concerns, efficacy and intentions to teach in inclusive classrooms: An international comparison of Australian and Italian teachers. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 1–10.
Sharma, U., & Jacobs, K. (2016). Predicting in-service educators' intentions to teach in inclusive classrooms in India and Australia. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55, 13–23.
Sharma, U., Shaukat, S. & Furlonger, B. (2014). Attitudes and self-efficacy of pre-service teachers towards inclusion in Pakistan. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs.
Soodak, L. C., & Podell, D. M. (1993). Teacher efficacy and student problem as factors in special education referral. The Journal of Special Education, 27, 66-81.
Swart, E. & Pettipher, R. (2011). A framework for understanding inclusion. In E Landsberg, D Krüger & E Swart (eds). Addressing barriers to learning: a South African perspective (2nded). Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Tschannen-Moran, M. & Woolfolk-Hoy, A. (2007). The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(6), 944-956.
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17. 783-805.
UNESCO [The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization]. (1994). The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education. Retrieved on 29 October, 2019.
United Nations. (2006). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD). (2006). Article 24.
United Nations General Assembly. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015.
Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2008). Self-efficacy for self-regulated learning: A validation study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, 443–463.
Ware, H., & Kitsantas, A. (2007). Teacher and Collective Efficacy Beliefs as Predictors of Professional Commitment. The Journal of Educational Research, 100 (5), 303-310.
Wilson, K. L., Murphy, A. G., Pearson, B. M., Wallace, V. G., Reher,V. & Buys,N. (2016). Understanding the Early Transition Needs of Diverse Commencing University Students in a Health Faculty: Informing Effective Intervention Practices. Studies in Higher Education, 41 (6), 1023–1040.
Wilson, C., Woolfson, L. & Durkin, K. (2020). School environment and mastery experience as predictors of teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs towards inclusive teaching. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 24 (2), 218-234.
Yada, A., Tolvanen, A., Malinen, O., Imai-Matsumura, K., Shimada, H., Koike, R., & Savolainen, H. (2019). Teachers’ self-efficacy and the sources of efficacy: a cross-cultural investigation in Japan and Finland. Teaching and Teacher Education, 81, 13–24.
Zee, M. & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2016). Teacher self-efficacy and its effects on classroom processes, student achievement adjustment, and teachers well-being: A synthesis of 40 years of research. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 981–1015. DOI:10.3102/0034654315626801