Digital technologies and information translucence in healthcare management: An institutional theory perspective for adopting electronic incidence reporting systems




Digital technologies, Institutional theory, information translucence, healthcare management, electronic incidence reporting systems.


The purpose of this study was to provide an institutional theory perspective on the adoption of electronic IRS technology for healthcare management. This research employs institutional theory to investigate the adoption of electronic IRS for healthcare management. The study’s conceptual analysis demonstrates that coercive, normative, and imitative forces influence the adoption of electronic IRS for healthcare management. International healthcare regulations and standards reflect the presence of coercive forces. International healthcare societies and professional networks mirror normative forces. Imitative forces exert pressure on smaller enterprises and developing nations to adopt electronic IRS. This research contributes to the literature and theory by extending the application of institutional theory to the adoption of digital technologies such as the electronic IRS. In addition, the study has practical implications because it demonstrates the importance of digital technologies such as electronic IRS for information translucence and healthcare management. Small businesses in developing nations can learn from large businesses in developed nations to adopt electronic IRS for efficient and effective healthcare management.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ibrahim Abdullah Alhamad, University of Ha'il, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Department of Management and Information Systems, College of Business Administration, University of Ha'il, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Harman Preet Singh, University of Ha'il, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Department of Management and Information Systems, College of Business Administration, University of Ha'il, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Albu, O. B., & Flyverbom, M. (2016). Organizational Transparency: Conceptualizations, Conditions, and Consequences. Business & Society, 58(2), 268-297.

Alhamad, I. A., & Singh, H. P. (2021a). Predicting Key Factors Impacting Online Hotel Ratings Using Data Mining Approach: A Case Study of the Makkah City of Saudi Arabia. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 12(2), 12A2N, 1-12.

Alhamad, I. A., & Singh, H. P. (2021b). Decoding Significant and Trivial Factors Influencing Online Hotel Ratings: The Case of Saudi Arabia's Makkah City. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 12(7), 12A7H, 1-11.

Allen, D. (2021). Weaponised incident reporting and what to do to prevent it. Nursing Standard, 36(11), 8–10.

Al-Rayes, S. A., Aldar, F. A., al Nasif, N. S., Alkhadrawi, Z. I., Al-Fayez, A., & Alumran, A. (2020). The use of electronic incident reporting system: Influencing factors. Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, 21, 100477.

Alrub, A. M. A., Amer, Y. S., Titi, M. A., May, A. C. A., Shaikh, F., Baksh, M. M., & El?Jardali, F. (2021). Barriers and enablers in implementing an electronic incident reporting system in a teaching hospital: A case study from Saudi Arabia. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 37(2), 854–872.

Alshammari, T. S., & Singh, H. P. (2018). Preparedness of Saudi Arabia to Defend Against Cyber Crimes: An Assessment with Reference to Anti-Cyber Crime Law and GCI Index. Archives of Business Research, 6(12), 131–146.

Appari, A., Johnson, M. E., & Anthony, D. L. (2009). HIPAA Compliance: An Institutional Theory Perspective. In Proceedings of the Fifteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems San Francisco, California, USA, August 6-9 (pp. 252–261).

Asakura, T., Mallee, H., Tomokawa, S., Moji, K., & Kobayashi, J. (2015). The ecosystem approach to health is a promising strategy in international development: lessons from Japan and Laos. Globalization and Health, 11(1), 3.

Aubin, D., & King, S. (2018). The Healthcare Environment: A Perfect Ecosystem for Growing Shame. Healthcare Quarterly, 20(4), 31–36.

Awad, A., Trenfield, S. J., Pollard, T. D., Ong, J. J., Elbadawi, M., McCoubrey, L. E., Goyanes, A., Gaisford, S., & Basit, A. W. (2021). Connected healthcare: Improving patient care using digital health technologies. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 178, 113958.

Barth, M. E., & Schipper, K. (2008). Financial Reporting Transparency. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance, 23(2), 173-190.

Braithwaite, J., Westbrook, M., & Travaglia, J. (2008). Attitudes toward the large-scale implementation of an incident reporting system. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 20(3), 184–191.

Burnett, S., Mendel, P., Nunes, F., Wiig, S., Bovenkamp, H. V., Karltun, A., Robert G., Anderson, J., Vincent, C., & Fulop, N. (2015). Using institutional theory to analyze hospital responses to external demands for finance and quality in five European countries. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 21(2), 109-117.

Danker, M. (2013). Understanding Stakeholder Activism, Managing Transparency Risk. The Governance of Risk (Vol. 5, Developments in Corporate Governance and Responsibility, pp. 33-72). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319.

Dhamanti, I., Leggat, S., Barraclough, S., Liao, H. H., & Abu Bakar, N. (2020). Comparison of Patient Safety Incident Reporting Systems in Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Journal of Patient Safety, 17(4), e299–e305.

DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields. American Sociological Review, 4(2), 147-160.

Elliott, P., Martin, D., & Neville, D. (2014). Electronic Clinical Safety Reporting System: A Benefits Evaluation. JMIR Medical Informatics, 2(1), e12.

Gagnon, M., Simonyan, D., Ghandour, E. K., Godin, G., Labrecque, M., Ouimet, M., & Rousseau, M. (2016). Factors influencing electronic health record adoption by physicians: A multilevel analysis. International Journal of Information Management, 36(3), 258-270.

GHN. (2022). The Global Health Network. Retrieved April 4, 2022, from

GNSH. (2022). GNSH – Shaping Simulation to Improve Healthcare. Global Network for Simulation in Healthcare. Retrieved April 3, 2022, from

Gopal, G., Suter-Crazzolara, C., Toldo, L., & Eberhardt, W. (2018). Digital transformation in healthcare – architectures of present and future information technologies. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), 57(3), 328–335.

Gregori, P., & Holzmann, P. (2020). Digital sustainable entrepreneurship: A business model perspective on embedding digital technologies for social and environmental value creation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 272, 122817.

Herchline, D., Rojas, C., Shah, A. A., Fairchild, V., Mehta, S., & Hart, J. (2022). A Quality Improvement Initiative to Improve Patient Safety Event Reporting by Residents. Pediatric Quality & Safety, 7(1), e519.

Hewitt, T., Chreim, S., & Forster, A. (2016). Incident reporting systems: a comparative study of two hospital divisions. Archives of Public Health, 74(1).

Howell, A. M., Burns, E. M., Hull, L., Mayer, E., Sevdalis, N., & Darzi, A. (2016). International recommendations for national patient safety incident reporting systems: an expert Delphi consensus-building process. BMJ Quality & Safety, 26(2), 150–163.

Hwang, J. I., Lee, S. I., & Park, H. A. (2012). Barriers to the Operation of Patient Safety Incident Reporting Systems in Korean General Hospitals. Healthcare Informatics Research, 18(4), 279.

ISO. (2019). ISO and Health. International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved May 1, 2022, from

ISQua. (2022). ISQua - The International Society for Quality in Health Care. International Society for Quality in Healthcare (ISQua). Retrieved April 2, 2022, from

Kim, D.-J., Hwang, I.-H., & Kim, J.-S. (2016). A Study on Employees Compliance Behavior to-wards Information Security Policy: A Modified Triandis Model. Journal of Digital Convergence, 14(4), 209–220.

Klonoff, D. C. (2013). Twelve Modern Digital Technologies That are Transforming Decision Making for Diabetes and All Areas of Health Care. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 7(2), 291-295.

Kumari, R., & Singh, H. P. (2022). Role of Incident Reporting System in Healthcare Management: A Case of Multispeciality Tertiary Hospital in India. International Journal of Information Movement, 6(IX), 12–18.

Laurenza, E., Quintano, M., Schiavone, F., & Vrontis, D. (2018). The effect of digital technologies adoption in healthcare industry: a case based analysis. Business Process Management Journal, 24(5), 1124–1144.

Levtzion-Korach, O., Alcalai, H., Orav, E. J., Graydon-Baker, E., Keohane, C., Bates, D. W., & Frankel, A. S. (2009). Evaluation of the Contributions of an Electronic Web-based Reporting System. Journal of Patient Safety, 5(1), 9–15.

Lurvey, L. D., Fassett, M. J., & Kanter, M. H. (2021). Self-Reported Learning (SRL), a Voluntary Incident Reporting System Experience Within a Large Health Care Organization. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 47(5), 288–295.

Mbunge, E., Batani, J., Gaobotse, G., & Muchemwa, B. (2022). Virtual healthcare services and digital health technologies deployed during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in South Africa: a systematic review. Global Health Journal, 6(2), 102–113.

Padilla, E. A. (2019). Sentinel Event (1st ed.). Bowker.

Pfeiffer, Y., Manser, T., & Wehner, T. (2010). Conceptualising barriers to incident reporting: a psychological framework. BMJ Quality & Safety, 19(6), e60.

Pham, J. C., Girard, T., & Pronovost, P. J. (2013). What to do with healthcare Incident Reporting Systems. Journal of Public Health Research, 2(3), 27.

Ramírez, E., Martín, A., Villán, Y., Lorente, M., Ojeda, J., Moro, M., Vara, C., Avenza, M., Domingo, M. J., Alonso, P., Asensio, M. J., Blázquez, J. A., Hernández, R., Frías, J., & Frank, A. (2018). Effectiveness and limitations of an incident-reporting system analyzed by local clinical safety leaders in a tertiary hospital. Medicine, 97(38), e12509.

Safa, N. S., Solms, R. V., & Furnell, S. (2016). Information security policy compliance model in or-ganizations. Computers & Security, 56, 70–82.

Shearer, B., Marshall, S., Buist, M. D., Finnigan, M., Kitto, S., Hore, T., Sturgess, T., Wilson, S., & Ramsay, W. (2012). What stops hospital clinical staff from following protocols? An analysis of the incidence and factors behind the failure of bedside clinical staff to activate the rapid response system in a multi-campus Australian metropolitan healthcare service. BMJ Quality & Safety, 21(7), 569–575.

Sherer, S. A. (2010). Information Systems and Healthcare XXXIII: An Institutional Theory Perspective on Physician Adoption of Electronic Health Records. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 26(1), 127-140.

Shi, W., Shambare, N., & Wang, J. (2008). The adoption of internet banking: An institutional theory perspective. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 12(4), 272-286.

Shin, D., & Biocca, F. (2018). Impact of Social Influence and Users’ Perception of Coolness on Smartwatch Behavior. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 46(6), 881–890.

Singh, A., Singh, H. P., Alam, F., & Agrawal, V. (2022a). Role of Education, Training, and E-Learning in Sustainable Employment Generation and Social Empowerment in Saudi Arabia. Sustainability, 14(14), 8822.

Singh, H. P., & Alshammari, K. (2021). Impacts of Digital Technology-Enabled Personalized and Adaptive Learning on Student Learning Performance: A TOE Framework for Saudi Arabia. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 12(13), 1–12.

Singh, H. P., & Alshammari, T. S. (2020). An Institutional Theory Perspective on Developing a Cyber Security Legal Framework: A Case of Saudi Arabia. Beijing Law Review, 11(03), 637–650.

Singh, H., Singh, A., Alam, F., & Agrawal, V. (2022b). Impact of Sustainable Development Goals on Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: Role of Education and Training. Sustainability, 14(21), 14119.

Singh, H.P. & Alhamad, I. A. (2021). Deciphering Key Factors Impacting Online Hotel Ratings Through the Lens of Two-Factor Theory: A Case of Hotels in Makkah City of Saudi Arabia. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies, 12(8), 12A8M, 1-12.

Stavropoulou, C., Doherty, C., & Tosey, P. (2015). How Effective Are Incident-Reporting Systems for Improving Patient Safety? A Systematic Literature Review. The Milbank Quarterly, 93(4), 826–866.

Teo, H. H., Wei, K. K., & Benbasat, I. (2003). Predicting Intention to Adopt Inter-organizational Linkages: An Institutional Perspective. MIS Quarterly, 27(1), 19-50.

Tortorella, G. L., Saurin, T. A., Fogliatto, F. S., Rosa, V. M., Tonetto, L. M., & Magrabi, F. (2021). Impacts of Healthcare 4.0 digital technologies on the resilience of hospitals. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 166, 120666.

Ubogagu-Israel, E., Kolandaisamy, A., & Abubaker, M. (2022). Using Datix Electronic Incident Reporting System to Develop a Palliative and End-of-Life Care Patient-Centered Auditing, Quality Assessment and Reporting System. Palliative Medicine and Hospice Care – Open Journal, 8(1), 8–14.

Ugrin, J. C. (2009). The Effect of System Characteristics, Stage of Adoption, and Experience on Institutional Explanations for ERP Systems Choice. Accounting Horizons, 23(4), 365-389.

Uyob, R. (2020). Application of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in predicting user intention to use Malaysian Business Reporting System (MBRS): A Conceptual Paper. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(4), 21–30.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J., & Xu, X. (2016). Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology: A Synthesis and the Road Ahead. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 17(5), 328–376.

Viswanadham, N. (2021). Ecosystem model for healthcare platform. in Sadhana [S?dhan?], 46(4).

Walsh, K., Burns, C., & Antony, J. (2010). Electronic adverse incident reporting in hospitals. Leadership in Health Services, 23(4), 292–303.

Wang, Q., Su, M., Zhang, M., & Li, R. (2021). Integrating Digital Technologies and Public Health to Fight Covid-19 Pandemic: Key Technologies, Applications, Challenges and Outlook of Digital Healthcare. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(11), 6053.

WHO. (2019, December 11). International health regulations. Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved April 15, 2022, from

Winkler, B. (2000, August). Which Kind of Transparency? On the Need for Clarity in Monetary Policy-Making (Working paper No. 26). European Central Bank website.

Wu, J. H., Shen, W. S., Lin, L. M., Greenes, R. A., & Bates, D. W. (2007). Testing the technology acceptance model for evaluating healthcare professionals’ intention to use an adverse event reporting system. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 20(2), 123–129.




How to Cite

Alhamad, I. A., & Singh, H. P. (2022). Digital technologies and information translucence in healthcare management: An institutional theory perspective for adopting electronic incidence reporting systems. Amazonia Investiga, 11(57), 30–38.