Formation of tolerance in the inclusive environment of an educational institution
In the article the results of theoretical research of the problem of forming a tolerant attitude towards people with special educational needs (SEN) are substantiated, defining the essence of the basic concepts of the research, psychological approaches to understanding the content and levels of tolerance. The following research methods were used: study of psychological and pedagogical literature, media monitoring, questionnaires and mathematical statistics. The results of an empirical study involving 226 respondents representing general secondary and higher education institutions in different regions of Ukraine are presented. The cases of disability discrimination in inclusive education were identified and the most effective measures for the formation of tolerant social attitude towards them were outlined. Based on the analysis of media resources, examples of intolerance in inclusion in different countries of the world are given, as well as dominant gender, racial or socio-cultural stereotypes that serve as barriers to inclusion. The emphasis is placed on the need to create an inclusive educational environment where all students can feel psychological comfort, understanding and mutual respect based on the generally accepted principle of tolerance – all students should study at regular educational institutions, despite difficulties or differences between them. The necessity for proper conditions for effective educational or correctional and developmental work with people with SEN, taking into account the adaptive nature of people from socially vulnerable groups, as well as mental, gender, ethnocultural characteristics of society has been proved.
Ainscow, M. (2005). Developing inclusive education systems: what are the levers for change? Journal of Educational Change, 6, 109–124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-005-1298-4
Avery, P. (2002). Teaching tolerance: What research tells us. Social Education, 66(5), 270-276.
Black, A., Bessudnov, A., Liu, Y., & Norwich, B. (2019). Academisation of schools in England and placements of pupils with special educational needs: an analysis of trends, 2011–2017. Frontiers in Education, 4(3). doi: 10.3389/feduc.2019.00003
Blândul, V. C., & Bradea, A. (2017). Developing psycho pedagogical and methodical competences in special / inclusive education teachers. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 75(4), 335-344.
Budnyk, O., Mazur, P., Matsuk, L., Berezovska, L., & Vovk, O. (2021). Development of professional creativity of future teachers (Based on comparative research in Ukraine and Poland). Amazonia Investiga, 10(44), 9-17. https://doi.org/10.34069/AI/2021.44.08.1
Budnyk, O., Sydoriv, S., Serman, L., Lushchynska, O., Tsehelnyk, T., & Matsuk, L. (2022). Inclusive education in rural schools of Ukraine or how to ensure quality inclusive education in rural schools in Ukraine? Revista Brasileira De Educação Do Campo, 7, e13940. https://doi.org/10.20873/uft.rbec.e13940
Cahill, K. (2021). Intersections of social class and special educational needs in a DEIS post-primary school: school choice and identity. International Journal of Inclusive Education. DOI: 10.1080/13603116.2021.1968519
de Shalit, A. (2021). Amsterdam: tolerance and inclusion. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy. DOI: 10.1080/13698230.2021.1881736
Faldet, A.-C., & Nes, K. (2021). Valuing vulnerable children’s voices in educational research. International Journal of Inclusive Education. DOI: 10.1080/13603116.2021.1956602
FOX 59. News. (Sep 9, 2021). Family of former student with Down syndrome sues Roncalli High School, Archdiocese of Indianapolis for failing to prevent alleged bullying by football team. https://fox59.com/news/family-of-former-student-with-down-syndrome-sues-roncalli-high-school-archdiocese-of-indianapolis-for-failing-to-prevent-alleged-bullying-by-football-team/
Galeotti, A. E. (2002). Toleration as Recognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Geller, R. J., Rubin, I. L., Nodvin, J. T., Teague, W. G., & Frumkin, H. (2007). Safe and Healthy School Environments. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 54(2), 351–373. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2007.01.005
Grzegorczyk, A. (1963). Schemes and Man. Sketches of Philosophy [Schematy i człowiek. Szkice filozoficzne], Cracow: Sign Publishing House [Wydawnictwo Znak].
Herzberg, F. (2003). One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review, 1, 17-29.
Hui, N., Vickery, E., Njelesani, J., & Cameron, D. (2018). Gendered experiences of inclusive education for children with disabilities in West and East Africa. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 22(5), 457-474. DOI: 10.1080/13603116.2017.1370740
Human Rights Watch (2018). Lebanon: Schools Discriminate Against Children with Disabilities https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/03/22/lebanon-schools-discriminate-against-children-disabilities
Keselman, A., Levin, D. M., Kramer, J. F., Matzkin, K., & Dutcher, G. (2011). Educating Young People about Environmental Health for Informed Social Action. PubMed Central, 4, 1–8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3875179/
Klix, N. (2019). On the Conceptual Insufficiency of Toleration and the Quest for a Superseding Concept. Public Reason, 10(2)–11(1), 61-76.
Kotarbinski, T. (1987). On the need for tolerance [O potrzebie tolerancji]. Wrocław: Ethical writings [Pisma etyczne]. https://tezeusz.pl/kotarbinski-tadeusz-pisma-etyczne-pawel-j-red-smoczynski
Lähdesmäki, T., Baranova, J., Ylönen, S. C., Koistinen, A. K., Mäkinen, K., Juškiene, V., & Zaleskiene, I. (2022). Tolerance, Empathy, and Inclusion. In: Learning Cultural Literacy through Creative Practices in Schools. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89236-4_4
Lyons, W. E., Thompson, S. A., & Timmons, V. (2016). ‘We are inclusive. We are a team. Let's just do it’: commitment, collective efficacy, and agency in four inclusive schools. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20(8), 889-907. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2015.1122841
McGuire, L. J. (2017). From Tolerance and Diversity to Inclusion and Celebration; New Horizons for Infusing Queer Theory into Communities. Journal of Family Strengths, 17(2). Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/jfs/vol17/iss2/9
Miller, K. J., & Sessions, M. M. (2005). Infusing tolerance, diversity, and social personal curriculum into inclusive social studies classes using family portraits and contextual teaching and learning. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 1(3). Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ966511
Nicholson, P. (1985). Toleration as a Moral Ideal. Aspects of Toleration. London: Methuen, 158–173.
Nikolaesku, I., Budnyk, O., Bondar, V., Tepla, O., & Berezovska, L. (2021). Pedagogical Management in Inclusive Process of the Educational Institution. Amazonia Investiga, 10(39), 76-85. https://doi.org/10.34069/AI/2021.39.03.7
Oñate Escobar, S. A., & Alfaro Urrutia, J. E. (2021). Percepciones del estudiantado, discriminación educacional por medio de la normalización de la exclusión. Revista Actualidades Investigativas en Educación, 21(3), 1-27. Doi. 10.15517/aie.v21i3.46483
Pascoe, M. C., Hetrick, S. E. & Parker, A. G. (2020) The impact of stress on students in secondary school and higher education. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25(1), 104–112. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2019.1596823
Perry, J. (2020). Mother of Murri boy calls for more disability awareness in schools after constant bullying. NITV NEWS. https://www.sbs.com.au/nitv/article/2020/02/20/mother-murri-boy-calls-more-disability-awareness-schools-after-constant-bullying
Pope Francis (2016). Mercy and inclusion (Jubilee Audience, 12 November 2016). Retrieved from https://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/audiences/2016/documents/papa-francesco_20161112_udienza-giubilare.html
Rembierz, M. (2009). Should a Philosopher Be Tolerant? A Question of Tolerance in Meta-Philosophical Reflection. World and Word [Świat i Słowo], 1(12), 113-132. ISSN 1731-3317.
Rembierz, M. (2020). Hope – humanity – society: questions concerning hope and the inspirations of critical realism. The Relational Theory of Society. “Archerian Studies”, vol. 2. (eds.) Krzysztof Wielecki, Klaudia Sledzinska, Peter Lang, Berlin, 159-176. https://www.worldcat.org/title/1243756965?oclcNum=1243756965
Rembierz, M. (2021). Revaluations of the times of pandemics: on the interference of the pandemic in the world of human values. transformations [Transformacje], 3, 132-146. https://rebus.us.edu.pl/bitstream/20.500.12128/22482/1/Rembierz_Revaluations_
Sajko, Kh. Ya., & Ostrovska, K. O. (2016). Tolerance to Children with Special Educational Needs in Inclusive School. [File PDF] https://pedagogy.lnu.edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/tolerantnist.pdf
Sanjeev, K., & Kumar, K. (2007). Inclusive Education in India. Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, 2 (2). https://corescholar.libraries.wright.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1086&context=ejie
Smith, Ch., Nerantzi, Ch., & Middleton, A. (2014). Promoting Creativity in Learning and Teaching. UK: University Campus Suffolk, Manchester Metropolitan University. http://www.iced2014.se/proceedings/1120_Smith.pdf
Smolinska, O., Budnyk, O., Voitovych, A., Palahniuk, M., & Smoliuk, А. (2020). The Problem of Health Protection in Modern Educational Institutions. Revista Inclusiones, 7(4), 108-116.
The Ontario Human Rights Commission (2016). Policy on ableism and discrimination based on disability https://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/policy-ableism-and-discrimination-based-disability
Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union (2016) “We don't want a disabled child to study with our children,” said the parents of the first-graders. https://helsinki.org.ua/articles/my-ne-hochemo-schob-dytyna-invalid-navchalas-z-nashymy-ditmy-batky-pershoklasnykiv/
United Nations (1995) Declaration of Principles on Tolerance. Adopted and proclaimed by Member States of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, France, 16 November 1995. https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Education/Training/Compilation/Pages/
Vasianovych, H., Budnyk, O., Klepar, M., Beshok, T., Blyznyuk, T., & Latyshevska, K. (2020). Pragmatism in Philosophy of Inclusive Education Studies and Problems of Teacher Training. Revista Inclusiones, 7(4). Octubre/Diciembre, 59-73.
Verkuyten, M., & Kollar, R. (2021). Tolerance and intolerance: Cultural meanings and discursive usage. Culture & Psychology, 27(1), 172-186. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354067X20984356
Villegas, T. (2021). The Biggest Barriers to Inclusive Education. Thinkinclusive. https://www.thinkinclusive.us/post/barriers-to-inclusive-education
Watson, K. (2016). Talking Tolerance Inside the “Inclusive” Early Childhood Classroom. Occasional Paper Series, 36. Retrieved from https://educate.bankstreet.edu/occasional-paper-series/vol2016/iss36/