Tolerance and social inclusion as a condition for successful rehabilitation of persons with disabilities
The academic paper is devoted to studying the features of the attitude of teachers, parents, employers towards people from different social groups in need of social inclusion and rehabilitation. A survey of 120 people (40 primary school teachers, 40 parents of healthy children, 40 employees of the State Employment Service of Ukraine) was conducted on their attitude to people in need of social-psychological and social-labour rehabilitation. The survey was conducted in 2 stages. At the first stage, it has been found out whom exactly the respondents consider to be those who require social and psychological assistance and rehabilitation. In the second stage, a modification of the method of E. S. Bogardus has been applied in order to determine social distance. Teachers and parents believe that children with disabilities need rehabilitation, involvement in an inclusive school community and increased attention. Regarding the categories with other health disorders (ADHD and dysgraphia), the viewpoint of teachers is quite unanimous ‒ they know about these students and believe that they need above average teachers’ attention. However, while parents are aware of the presence of children with ADHD, they are almost unfamiliar with children with reading and writing disorders. Children with mental disorders, autism and ADHD have the greatest problems with integration into inclusive communities. They are ready to be perceived at the maximum social distance ‒ in a special school, in a boarding school, except sporadically on the playground. For employees of the employment service, the maximum social distance was for people with mental and psychological disorders. According to experts’ viewpoints, employers do not want to hire people with these disorders.
Albrecht, G. L., Walker, V. G., & Levy, J. A. (1982). Social distance from the stigmatized: A test of two theories. Social Science & Medicine, 16(14), pp. 1319‒1327.
Andrews, J. (2000). The inclusive classroom: Educating exceptional children. (2nd Edition). Scarborough, ON: Nelson Canada, 561 p.
Arthurson, K. (2002). Creating inclusive communities through balancing social mix: A critical relationship or tenuous link? Urban policy and research, 20(3), pp. 245‒261.
Becker, P. E. (1998). Making inclusive communities: Congregations and the “problem” of race. Social Problems, 45(4), pp. 451-472.
Cole, E., & Siegel, J. A. (2003). School psychology in multicultural inclusive communities: Responding to children’s needs. Effective consultation in school psychology, 222‒277.
Decree № 957. “On approval of the Procedure for organizing inclusive education in general secondary educational institutions” of the Cabinet of Ministers as of 15.09.2021 https://www.kmu.gov.ua/npas/pro-zatverdzhennya-poryadku-organi-a957. (In Ukranian)
Firat, T., & Koyuncu, I. (2021). Social Distance of University Students towards Individuals with Special Needs. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, pp 1‒15.
Francis, G., & Nagro, S. (2017). The education system: Building partnerships and inclusive communities. In Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (pp. 158‒170). Routledge.
Golubovych, O. (2012) Tolerance as a factor of interpersonal interaction in the XXI century. Visnyk of Lviv National University. A series of philosophical and political studies, Issue 2, pp. 49‒56. ‒ Access mode: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Vlu_fps_2012_2_8
Gorbachyk, O. A. (2005). Verification of validity of the Bogardus scale for measuring international tolerance in Ukraine. Scientific notes of NaUKMA. Series Sociol. Science, V. 46, pp. 18‒22. http://ekmair.ukma.edu.ua/handle/123456789/7763 (In Ukrainian).
Gordiichuk, O. Ye., & Gaftkovych, V. A. (2015) Professional competence of an inclusive class teacher as an indicator of the effectiveness of training children with special needs. Scientific works SWARLD, 8(38), pp. 86–95. https://www.sworld.com.ua/konfer38/192.pdf (In Ukranian)
Grassi, R. (2018). Building inclusive communities: teens with disabilities in libraries. Reference Services Review, 46(3), pp. 364-378
Gunn, A. C. (2003). A philosophical anchor for creating inclusive communities in early childhood education: Anti-bias philosophy and te Whā riki: Early childhood curriculum. Waikato Journal of Education, Vol 9 (2003)
Hazel, C. E., & Allen, W. B. (2013). Creating inclusive communities through pedagogy at three elementary schools. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 24(3), pp. 336‒356.
Johnson D. (1982). Effects of Cooperative and Competitive Learning Experiences on Interpersonal Attraction between Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 116(2), pp. 211–219.
Kaidalova, H. P. (2015) Experience of foreign countries in implementing inclusive education in Ukraine. Pedagogical sciences: theory, history, innovative technologies, № 6 (50). (In Ukranian)
Lundberg, E. (2018). School, friends, or a matter of personality? A multidimensional approach to exploring sources of tolerance among students. Nordic Studies in Education, 38(2), 155‒173.
Miliutina, K. L. (2017). The perspective of studying tolerance as a prerequisite for creating inclusive communities. General psychology, history of psychology, (1413), 80. (In Ukranian)
Munford, R., Sanders, J., & Maden, B. (2010). Building inclusive communities for families and children. Developing Practice: The Child, Youth and Family Work Journal, (27), pp. 38‒51.
Nosenko, Yu., & Matyukh, Zh. (2015). Foreign experience in the use of information and communication technologies in inclusive preschool education. New pedagogical thought, (4), 95‒102. (In Ukranian)
Ouellette‐Kuntz, H., Burge, P., Brown, H. K., & Arsenault, E. (2010). Public attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities as measured by the concept of social distance. Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, 23 (2), pp. 132‒142.
Rostova, A. V., & Zhelnina, E. V. (2017). Possibilities of using the Bogardus scale to measure the innovative openness of the population. Karelian Scientific Journal, 6(4 (21)). https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=32452585 (In Russian).
Ruzhenkov, V. A., Ruzhenkova, V. V., & Churnosova, O. I. (2017). The results of the studying social stigmatization of persons with mental disorders and suicidal behaviour by senior medical students using the modified Bogardus social distance scale. Bulletin of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery, 4. https://panor.ru/articles/rezultaty-izucheniya-sotsialnoy-stigmatizatsii-lits-s-psikhicheskimi-rasstroystvami-i-s-suitsidalnym-povedeniem-studentami-medikami-starshikh-kursov-pri-pomoshchi-modifitsirovannoy-shkaly-sotsialnoy-distantsii-bogardusa/48856.html (in Russian).
Trussell, D. E. (2020). Building inclusive communities in youth sport for lesbian-parented families. Journal of Sport Management, 34(4), pp. 367‒377.
UNICEF. (n.d.). Inclusive education, https://www.unicef.org/education/inclusive-education
van Rhijn, T., Underwood, K., Frankel, E., Lero, D. S., Spalding, K., Janus, M., ... & Haché, A. (2021). Role of Child Care in Creating Inclusive Communities and Access for All. Canadian Public Policy, 47(3), pp. 399‒409.
Verbenets, A. A. (2016) International experience in implementing inclusive education. Pedagogy of creative personality formation in higher and general educational schools, Issue 51(104), pp. 90–97. (In Ukranian)
Watson, K. (2016). Talking Tolerance Inside the “Inclusive” Early Childhood Classroom. Occasional Paper Series, (36), 6.
Wiggins, G. (1988). Ten “radical” suggestions for school reform. Education Week, 7(24), pp. 20–28.