Semantic and motivational characteristics of enmity vocabulary: the relevance of structural motivation
The object of the research includes the actual designations of the subject with the semantics of enmity, formed with the active foreign language word-formation components, functioning in Russian-language online media and Internet communication in 2000-2020. The approaches used include system-centric and text-centric, semasiological and onomasiological approaches, motivational, definitional, functional-semantic and contextual analysis. It analyses the syntagmatics, semantics, word's inner form, type of motivation, motivational form and meaning, motivational and classification features, lexical and structural motivators, ways of discursive actualising the motivational relations of the studied words. It is shown that selected lexical units with the component –phobe, -phrenic, - saur, -down, -hater, -oid, -oholik, -path, -man, -(e)rast belong to the vocabulary of enmity depending on their significative or pragmatic component, implement a negative assessment of intellectual, psychological, moral qualities of the subject. The actual vectors of developing the nominal vocabulary of enmity in the Russian language are determined by integration, intensification, internationalization, intensification. The relevant word-forming tendencies in the studied group of nouns are highlighted – the frequency of word composition, non-usual ways of word formation, nominations by analogy, the increasing role of onyms, the activity of word-forming components with a negative rating. It is demonstrated that motivational relations of lexemes are discursively implemented through the actualization of lexical and structural motivation, the paradigmatic value of lexemes, the subjective modality that the addressee uses, his/her individual motivation of words.
Amitel (2014). Russia will not exchange schoolchildren with the United States because of a homosexual couple adopting a Russian child. Barnaul and Altai Territory news. Recovered from https://www.amic.ru/news/283648/.
Anscombre, J.-C. (2019). Idiomaticity, lexicon and lexical schematas. Cahiers de Lexicologie, 1(11), 119–147. URL: https://classiques-garnier.com/export/pdf/cahiers-de-lexicologie-2019-1-n-114-les-phrases-prefabriquees-sens-fonctions-usages-figement-lexique-et-matrices-lexicales.html.
Arhiseva (2015). Livejournal. Orthodox, get a grenade from RNL Stepanov. Recovered from https://arhiseva.livejournal.com/95745.html.
Bagrov, D. (2019). On the origins of the Kremlin's love and hatred of Stalin. Levoradikal. Recovered from https://levoradik
Balestero, M. D., Clempi, C. B., & Da Costa, D. S. (2020). Processes of neologism formation on instagram. Revista da Anpoll, 1(51), 83-95.
Batumi, G. (2014). Mikhail Slobodin, who loved to talk about how to become rich and successful, fled Russia with money?, Livejournal. Puerrtto. Recovered from https://puerrtto.livejournal.com/640686.html
Berdnik, M. (2011). Varjag_2007, They want to equate Ukrainophobia with anti-Semitism. Livejournal. Recovered from https://varjag-2007.livejournal.com/2495481.html?page=2.
Blinova, O. I. (2012). Key terms of motivology: the test of the time (1971–2011). Tomsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin, 10(125), 136-140.
Cano, D. P. V. (2020). Word formation by external motivation in Spanish and French. XLinguae, 13 (1), 225–236. Recovered from http://xlinguae.eu/files/XLinguae1_2020_17.pdf
Chishman, R., dos Santos, A. N., & Martins P. (2020). The lexical neology phenomenon in the 2018 elections. Water Line, 33(1), 129–149.
Crim (2020). Internet community Pikabu. I really hope this is just trolling. Pikabu Newsletter. Recovered from https://pikabu.ru/story/ochen_nadeyus_chto_yeto_prosto_trolling_7326945?cid=165170229.
Detry, F. (2017). Idioms in French as a foreign language: memorization strategies and structural motivation. Anales de filologia francesa, 25, 331-348.
Dobrovol'skij, D., & Piirainen, E. (2018). Conventional Figurative Language Theory and idiom motivation. Yearbook of Phraseology, 9 (1), 5-30.
Efremova, T. F. (2000). New explanatory and derivational dictionary of the Russian language. Moscow: Drofa.
Etoonda (2014). The massacre will be not only in Donbass, Recovered from https://etoonda.livejournal.com/594215.html.
Galitsyna, E.G. (2018). Plant names of Finno-Ugric Languages Motivated by Plant Parts Form and Their Equivalents in the English language: Comparative Analysis. Nauchnyi dialog, 5, 49-59.
Gombocz, E. (2013). Contrastive word form analysis German-Hungarian. Word families from a didactic and lexicographical aspect, 44. Mannheim: Institute for the German Language.
Grigorieva, P.V. (2019). Blending as a type of unusual derivation: to clarify the concept. The World of Science, Culture, Education, 3 (76), 488– 490.
Khazimullina, E. E. (2015). General linguistic theory of motivation: to the statement of the problem. Questions of Cognitive Linguistics, 2(043), 144–155.
Kishina, E.V. (2011). The nature of motivational and metalanguage connections in political texts. Actual problems of modern word formation: collection of scientific articles. Kemerovo. Kemerovo State University, 4, 413-418. Recovered from https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=22421034.
Kozlovskaya, N.V. (ed.) (2020). New words and dictionaries of new words: Collection of scientific articles. St. Petersburg: Institute for Linguistic Research RAS.
Kozlovskij, V. (2016). Kstati. Trumposaurus carries the Time of Troubles. Newspaper of Russian American News and Views. Recovered from https://kstati.net/trampozavr-neset-smutnoe-vremya/.
Kuznetsov, S. A. (Ch. Ed). (2000). Big Dictionary of Russian Language. Saint Petersburg: Norint. Recovered from https://gufo.me/dict/kuznetsov.
LEEDS. (2005-2017) Russian corpora of the University of Leeds. Electronic resource. Recovered from http://corpus.leeds.ac.uk/ruscorpora.html.
Lopatnikov, S. (2009). A word about words. Livejournal. Recovered from https://sl-lopatnikov.livejournal.com/169470.html.
Mk.ru (2017). Newspaper “Moscow's comsomolets”. Letters to Heads of State. Recovered from https://www.mk.ru/culture/2017/03/17/pisma-glavam-gosudarstv.html.
Morozkina, T., Rusinakova, J., & Ivanova, L. (2020) Phonosemantic interpretation of lexical units in the context of Russian and Slovak linguocultures. Amazonia Investiga, 9 (29), 496-506. https://amazoniainvestiga.info/index.php/amazonia/article/view/1414
National corpus of the Russian language (2010-2021). official website. Electronic resource. Recovered from https://ruscorpora.ru.
Olostiak, M. (2019). Theory of lexical motivation in Slovak lexicology. Skase journal of theoretical linguistics, 16, 3, 136-155.
Ozhegov, S.I., & Shvedova, N.Yu. (1992). Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language, Moscow: Az. Electronic resource. Recovered from https://ozhegov.slovaronline.com/.
Rebrina, L. N. (2020). Semantic and Motivational Characteristics of Neolexemes of Enmity: Discursive Disclosure of Inner Form of the Word. Nauchnyi dialog, 8, 141-155.
Rebrina, L.N., & Shamne, N.L. (2020). Systemic-Communicative Dimensions of Modern Protest (based on German-Language Online Petitions). Nauchnyi dialog, 3, 151-167.
Slovohotov, A. (2013). Photo of the day, 01.07.2013, comment of Sokolov D. Livejournal. Recovered from https://slovo13.livejournal.com/881550.html
Solvaig (2015). Stalinomania - the dry residue of Crimeanism. Livejourna. Recovered from https://solvaigsamara.livejournal.com/947974.html.
Timonin, D. (2017). DAS_FOLAND, Where I came from, I don't know. Livejournal. Recovered from https://das-foland.livejournal.com/369788.html.
Trishin, V.N. (2013). Electronic dictionary of synonyms of the Russian language of the ASIS system. NVI. Recovered from http://rus-yaz.niv.ru/doc/synonyms-trishin/index.htm.
Ulrich, W. (2017). Morphological awareness - How it helps us understand unfamiliar words. The Language Service, 6, 264-276.
Ulrich, W. (2020). Prayed and exhausted! Between Occasionalisms and Neologisms. Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik, 48 (1), 167-186.
Umbreit, B. (2010). Does love come from to love or to love from love? Why lexical motivation has to be regarded as bidirectional. Cognitive perspectives on word formation, 221, 301-333.
Wiktionary (2019). Multilingual, web-based project. Electronic resource. Recovered from https://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%BF%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82.
Yakemenko, B. (2013). Vultures, comment of Credward. Livejournal. Recovered https://boris-yakemenko.livejournal.com/315507.html?thread=14917491#t14917491.
Yurina, E. A. & Zhakupova, A. D. (2020). The Development of Olga Blinova's Ideas in the Linguistic Conceptions of the Figurative System of the Language and Contrastive Motivology. Filologiya-tomsk State University Journal of Philology, 68, 170-193
Yuxin, B. (2016). Main achievements and actual problems оf neology. Bulletin of Kalmytsk university, 2(30), 78-85.
Zelichenko A.I. (2013). Yeltsinoides, putinoides, navalnoides ... (political and psychological study). Livejournal. Recovered from https://russkiysvet.livejournal.com/156651.html