The impact of institutional factors on social entrepreneurship activities: an empirical evidence from Pakistan
Social entrepreneurship has soon recognized as important factor in socio-economic development. So far little research has been done in the context of developing young countries like Pakistan. This study investigate how institutional factors affect social entrepreneurial activities in Pakistan. Data from GEM were used for analysis. Due to the binary nature of the dependent variables, we used logistic regression models to test the hypothesis using the ReLogit estimation technique. This study generates key important results. The findings indicated that informal institutional factors influence more the likelihood of being social entrepreneur than formal institutional factors. The empirical findings provide useful information for government policies on promoting social entrepreneurship.
Afridi, F. E. A. (2021). Reconceptualising Self-leadership and Management Style within the Organization. Revista Científica del Amazonas, 4(7), 53-60, https://revistadelamazonas.info/index.php/amazonas/article/view/45
Afridi, F. E. A., Jan, S., Ayaz, B., & Irfan, M. (2021). The impact of Covid-19 on E-business practices and consumer buying behavior in a developing country. Amazonia Investiga, 10(38), 97-112, https://amazoniainvestiga.info/index.php/amazonia/article/view/1547
Ajao, B., Oyebisi, T., & Aderemi, H. (2018). Factors influencing the implementation of e-commerce innovations: The case of the Nigerian informal sector. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 10(4), 473-481.
Aquino, R. S., Lück, M., & Schänzel, H. A. (2018). A conceptual framework of tourism social entrepreneurship for sustainable community development. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 37, 23-32.
Audretsch, D., & Keilbach, M. (2004). Entrepreneurship capital and economic performance. Regional studies, 38(8), 949-959.
Audretsch, D. B., & Keilbach, M. (2004). Entrepreneurship and regional growth: an evolutionary interpretation. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 14(5), 605-616.
Boschee, J. (1998). Merging mission and money: A broad member’s guide to social eneterpreneurship. National Center for NGO Boards, 32(3), 20-25. https://www.socialent.org/pdfs/MergingMission.pdf
Certo, S. T., & Miller, T. (2008). Social entrepreneurship: Key issues and concepts. Business horizons, 51(4), 267-271.
Corner, P. D., & Ho, M. (2010). How opportunities develop in social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 34(4), 635-659.
Dacin, M. T., Dacin, P. A., & Tracey, P. (2011). Social entrepreneurship: A critique and future directions. Organization science, 22(5), 1203-1213.
Dees, J. G. (1998). The meaning of social entrepreneurship. Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership.
Dees, J. G. (2007). Taking social entrepreneurship seriously. Society, 44(3), 24-31.
Doherty, B., Thompson, J., & Spear, R. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: a different model? International journal of social economics, 33(5/6), pp. 399-410 https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/03068290610660670/full/html
Dwivedi, A., & Weerawardena, J. (2018). Conceptualizing and operationalizing the social entrepreneurship construct. Journal of business research, 86, 32-40.
Gupta, P., Chauhan, S., Paul, J., & Jaiswal, M. P. (2020). Social entrepreneurship research: A review and future research agenda. Journal of business research, 113, 209-229.
Haugh, H. (2005). A research agenda for social entrepreneurship. Social enterprise journal, 1(1), pp. 1-12 https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/17508610580000703/full/html
Kshetri, N. (2007). Barriers to e-commerce and competitive business models in developing countries: A case study. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 6(4), 443-452.
Light, P. C. (2011). The search for social entrepreneurship. Strategic Direction, 27(6). https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/sd.2011.05627fae.001/full/html
Martin, R. L., & Osberg, S. (2007). Social entrepreneurship: The case for definition. Stanford social innovation review Stanford. https://www.ngobiz.org/picture/File/Social%20Enterpeuneur-The%20Case%20of%20Definition.pdf
Nicholls, A. (2008). Social entrepreneurship: New models of sustainable social change. OUP Oxford.
Noruzi, M. R., Westover, J. H., & Rahimi, G. R. (2010). An exploration of social entrepreneurship in the entrepreneurship era. Asian Social Science, 6(6), 3.
Omri, A. (2020). Formal versus informal entrepreneurship in emerging economies: The roles of governance and the financial sector. Journal of business research, 108, 277-290.
Pankomera, R., & van Greunen, D. (2019). Opportunities, barriers, and adoption factors of mobile commerce for the informal sector in developing countries in Africa: A systematic review. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 85(5), e12096.
Peredo, A. M., & McLean, M. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: A critical review of the concept. Journal of world business, 41(1), 56-65.
Rawhouser, H., Cummings, M., & Newbert, S. L. (2019). Social impact measurement: Current approaches and future directions for social entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 43(1), 82-115.
Rehman, A., Ishaque, A., Malik, S., Rehman, S. U., Hussain, A., Khan, M., Afridi, F. E. A. (2021). Exploring Asymmetric Nexus Between Tourism, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in the Context of Pakistan. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 11(3), 338-345.
Santos, F. M. (2012). A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 335-351.
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management review, 25(1), 217-226.
Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 72-90.
Short, J. C., Moss, T. W., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2009). Research in social entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic entrepreneurship journal, 3(2), 161-194.
Sila, I. (2013). Factors affecting the adoption of B2B e-commerce technologies. Electronic Commerce Research, 13(2), 199-236.
Sullivan Mort, G., Weerawardena, J., & Carnegie, K. (2003). Social entrepreneurship: Towards conceptualisation. International journal of nonprofit and voluntary sector marketing, 8(1), 76-88.
Weerawardena, J., & Mort, G. S. (2006). Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model. Journal of world business, 41(1), 21-35.
Zahra, S. A., Rawhouser, H. N., Bhawe, N., Neubaum, D. O., & Hayton, J. C. (2008). Globalization of social entrepreneurship opportunities. Strategic entrepreneurship journal, 2(2), 117-131.