Assessing social cognitive functions in elementary school children: or problems of motor activity disorders

Keywords: behavior disorders, cognitive functions, elementary school children, personal development.


The urgency of the research issue is due to the tendency of an increase in the number of children with disorders of the muscle-skeleton system and motor skills. In this regard, these children have problems in learning activities, relationships with peers and adults. The purpose of the research presented in the paper was to study the social and psychological peculiarities of the personality of elementary school children with motor activity (motor skills) disorder. To solve the tasks set in the study and test the hypothesis, a number of methods and techniques were used: theoretical analysis of scientific literature, empirical methods: observation, experiment, questionnaire, technique of N.I. Ozeretsky; children's version of S. Rosenzweig's test; "school-based anxiety” test. The study revealed that two options are possible in the development of the personality of elementary school children with motor activity disorders: favorable and unfavorable. An unfavorable variant of the child's personality development is associated with “non-constructive” behavior, which manifests in the inability to withstand difficult social situations. A favorable variant of personal development is characterized by the predominance of “constructive” behavior, which allows one to overcome life difficulties.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Vladimir Eliseev, Lipetsk of State Pedagogical University, Russia.

Prof., DSc, Lipetsk of State Pedagogical University, Russia.

Irina Eliseeva, Lipetsk of State Pedagogical University, Russia.

Docent, PhD, Lipetsk of State Pedagogical University, Russia.

Maria Korobova, Lipetsk of State Pedagogical University, Russia.

Docent, PhD, Lipetsk of State Pedagogical University, Russia.

Julia Romanova, Lipetsk of State Pedagogical University, Russia.

Docent, PhD, Lipetsk of State Pedagogical University, Russia.


Adolph, K.E., & Hoch, J.E. (2019). Motor development: embodied, embedded, enculturated, and enabling. Annual Review of Psychology, 70, 141–164.

Cantell, M., Smyth M., & Ahonen, T. (1994). Clumsiness in adolescence: educational, motor and social outcomes of motor delay detected at 5 years. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 11(2), 115–129.

Corbetta, D. (2010). Understanding motor development from a multileveled approach. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32, pp S4–S4.

Cummins, A., Piek J.P., & Dyck, M.J. (2005). Motor coordination, empathy, and social behaviour in school-aged children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47(7), 437–442.

Diamond, A. (2000). Close interrelation of motor development and cognitive development and of the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Child Development, 71(1), 44–56.

Downing, C., & Caravolas, M. (2020). Prevalence and cognitive profiles of children with comorbid literacy and motor disorders. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 573580.

Francis, M., & Piek, J. (2003). The effects of perceived social support and self-worth on depressive symptomatology in children with and without developmental coordination disorder. In Proceedings of the 38th APS Annual Conference, 2–5 October 2003 (pp. 70–74). Melbourne: The Australian Psychological Society.

Fulceri, F., Grossi, E., Contaldo, A., Narzisi, A., Apicella, F., Parrini, I., Tancredi, R., Calderoni, S., & Muratori, F. (2019). Motor skills as moderators of core symptoms in autism spectrum disorders: preliminary data from an exploratory analysis with artificial neural networks. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2683.

Gasser-Haas, O., Sticca, F., & Seiler, C.W. (2020). Poor motor performance - Do peers matter? Examining the role of peer relations in the context of the environmental stress hypothesis. Frontiers in psychology, 11, p 498.

Gerber, R.J., Wilks, T., & Erdie-Lalena, C. (2010). Developmental milestones: Motor development. Pediatrics in Review, 31(7), 267–277.

Goodway, J.D., Ozmun, J.C., & Gallahue, D.L. (2019). Understanding Motor Development: Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Green, D., Baird, G., & Sugden, D. (2006). A pilot study of psychopathology in developmental coordination disorder. Child Care Health and Development, 32, 741–750.

Heiman, C.M., Cole, W.G., Lee, D.K., & Adolph, K.E. (2019). Object interaction and walking: integration of old and new skills in infant development. Infancy, 24(4), 547–569.

Jansen, P., Quaiser-Pohl, C., Neuburger, S., Ruthsatz, V. (2015). Factors influencing mental-rotation with action-based gender-stereotyped objects-the role of fine motor skills. Current Psychology, 34(2), 466–476.

King-Dowling, S., Kwan, M.Y.W., Rodriguez, C., Missiuna, C., Timmons, B.W., & Cairney, J. (2019). Physical activity in young children at risk for developmental coordination disorder. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 61(11), 1302–1308.

Klassen, A.F., Miller, A., Fine, S. (2004). Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents who have a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 114(5), E541-E547.

Kopp, C.B. (2011). Development in the early years: socialization, motor development, and consciousness. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 165–187.

Krombholz, H. (2018). Motor development and handedness in infants. Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 50(2), 61–70.

Lee, K., Kim, Y.H., Lee, Y. (2020). Correlation between motor coordination skills and emotional and behavioral difficulties in children with and without developmental coordination disorder. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(20), 7362.

Lezak, M., Howieson, D., Loring, D., Hannay, H., & Fischer, J. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lord, R., & Hulme, C. (1987). Perceptual judgments of normal and clumsy children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 29(2), 250–257.

Losse, A., Henderson, S., Elliman, D., Hall, D., Knight, E., & Jongmans, M. (1991). Clumsiness in children: do they grow out of it? A 10-year follow-up study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33(1), 55–68.

Mokobane, M., Pillay, B.J., & Meyer, A. (2019). Fine motor deficits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in primary school children. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 25, a1232.

Noordstar, J.J., & Volman, M.J. (2020). Self-perceptions in children with probable developmental coordination disorder with and without overweight. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 99, 103601.

Ozeretsky, N.I. (1930) Methods of Motor Skills Research. Moscow-Leningrad: State Medical Publishing House.

Piek, J., Dawson, L., Smith, L., & Gasson, N. (2008). The role of early fine and gross motor development on later motor and cognitive ability. Human Movement Science, 27(5), 668–681.

Poulsen, A.A., Ziviani, J.M., Cuskelly, M., & Smith, R. (2007). Boys with developmental coordination disorder: loneliness and team sports participation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61(4), 451–462.

Provost, B., Lopez, R., & Heimerl, S. (2007). A comparison of motor delays in young children: autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and developmental concerns. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(2), 321–328.

Rahimi-Golkhandan, S., Steenbergen, B., Piek, J.P., & Wilson, P.H. (2014). Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: sensitivity to positive social cues. Human Movement Science, 38, 209–224.

Rigoli, D., & Piek, J.P. (2020). Motor disorders biology. In S. Hupp and J. Jewell (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Child and Adolescent Development, 10 volume set (vol. 8, pp. 1–12). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Rosenbaum, D.A. (2005). The Cinderella of psychology: the neglect of motor control in the science of mental life and behavior. American Psychologist, 60(4), 308-317.

Rosenzweig, S. (1945). The picture-association method and its application in a study of reactions to frustration. Journal of Personality, 14, 3–23.

Schabos, O., Hoffmann, K., Enzi, B., Juckel, G., & Mavrogiorgou, P. (2019). Kinematic analysis of handwriting movements in individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without obsessive compulsive symptoms. Psychopathology, 52(6), 346–357.

Schoemaker, M., & Kalverboer, A. (1994). Social and affective problems of children who are clumsy: How early do they begin. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 11(2), 130–140.

Skinner, E.A., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M.J. (2020). The Development of Coping during Infancy and Early Childhood. Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development, vol.1, 2nd edn (pp. 417–429). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Skinner, R., & Piek, J. (2001). Psychosocial implications of poor motor control coordination in children and adolescents. Human Movement Science, 20(1-2), 73–94.

Van der Walt, J., Plastow, N.A., & Unger, M. (2020). Motor skill intervention for pre-school children: A scoping review. African Journal of Disability, 9, a747.

Von Hofsten, C. (2004). An action perspective on motor development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(6), 266–272.

Wagner, M.O., Bös, K., Jascenoka, J., Jekauc, D., & Petermann, F. (2012). Peer problems mediate the relationship between developmental coordination disorder and behavioral problems in school-aged children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), 2072–2079.

Wehmeier, P.M., Schacht, A., & Barkley, R.A. (2010). Social and emotional impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact on quality of life. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(3), 209–217.
How to Cite
Eliseev, V., Eliseeva, I., Korobova, M., & Romanova, J. (2021). Assessing social cognitive functions in elementary school children: or problems of motor activity disorders. Amazonia Investiga, 10(37), 125-134.