Grammatical and Syntactical Functions of Auxiliaries in English and Urdu
The current study investigates grammatical and syntactical functions of auxiliaries in Urdu and English to draw certain distinctions regarding the behavior, syntactic representation and semantic content auxiliaries add to the main verbs (Vs) through the X-bar theory as a theoretical framework within the minimalist program (MP). The data of the current research were collected from authentic sources (Urdu and English text books and grammars) to consider a diverse range of possible usage of Urdu and English auxiliaries. 200 sentences extracted from textbooks and grammars were analyzed grammatically in terms of morphology, and syntax (through tree-representation and their movement). The findings indicate sharp differences related to the syntactic position of auxiliaries in Urdu and English. In Urdu, auxiliaries always occupy their position after the main verbs in a sentence and their position is fixed and also have the ability to mark number (singular & plural) and gender (masculine & feminine). In contrast, English auxiliaries can only mark number. Another sharp difference is observed in the question formation process. In Urdu, unlike English, auxiliaries cannot be moved from its latent position towards the specifier position at the beginning of the sentence to construct question structures, because, if it happens, the sentence is considered ungrammatical which may result in the violation of MP. The findings of the study would prove helpful for understanding the semantic, grammatical and syntactical nature and behavior of auxiliaries comparatively in Urdu and English.
Ahmed, T. (2010). The unaccusativity/unergativity distinction in Urdu. Journal of South Asian Linguistics, 3(1).
Alagbe, A. A. (2009). The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise. African Research Review, 3(2).
Bhatt, R., & Dayal, V. (2020). Polar question particles: Hindi-Urdu kya. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 1-30.
Bhatt, R., Bogel, T., Butt, M., Hautli, A., & Sulger, S. (2011). Urdu/Hindi Modals. CSLI Publications
Börjars, K., & Burridge, K. (2019). Introducing english grammar. Routledge.
Butt, M. (1995). The Structure of Complex Predicates. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications
Butt, M. (2003). Light verbs in Urdu and grammaticalization Miriam Butt and Wilhelm Geuder. Words in time: Diachronic semantics from different points of view, 143, 295.
Butt, M., & Rizvi, J. (2010). Tense and aspect in Urdu. Layers of aspect, 43-66.
Butt, M. (2010). The light verb jungle: Still hacking away. Complex predicates: Cross-linguistic perspectives on event structure. Cambridge University Press.
Butt, M., & Geuder, W. (2001). On the (semi) lexical status of light verbs. Semilexical Categories: On the content of function words and the function of content words, 323-370.
Butt, M., & Gillian, R. (2003). Complex Aspectual Structure in Hindi/Urdu. Oxford University Press
Butt, M., & Holloway, T. (2009). On the Difference between Auxiliaries, Serial Verbs and Light Verbs. CSLI Publications.
Butt, M., & Lahiri, A. (2013). Diachronic pertinacity of light verbs. Lingua, 135, 7-29.
Butt, M., & Ramchand, G. (2001). Complex aspectual structure in Hindi/Urdu. M. Liakata, B. Jensen, & D. Maillat, Eds, 1-30.
Collins, P., & Hollo, C. (2016). English grammar: An introduction. Macmillan International Higher Education.
Das, P. K. (2006). Grammatical Agreement in Hindi-Urdu and its Major Varieties.
David, A., Maxwell, M., Browne, E., & Lynn, N. (2009). Urdu Morphology. Maryland: Centre for Advanced Study of Language, University of Maryland.
Diesing, M. (1997). Light verbs and the syntax of aspect in Yiddish. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics, 1(2), 119-156.
Ehsan, T., & Butt, M. (2020, May). Dependency Parsing for Urdu: Resources, Conversions and Learning. In Proceedings of The 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (pp. 5202-5207).
Elenbaas, M. (2013). The synchronic and diachronic status of English light verbs. Linguistic Variation, 13(1), 48-80.
Fleischhauer, J., & Neisani, M. (2020). Adverbial and attributive modification of Persian separable light verb constructions. Journal of Linguistics, 56(1), 45-85.
Griffiths, P. (2006). Introduction to English semantics and pragmatics. Edinburgh university press.
Harish, B. S., & Rangan, R. K. (2020). A comprehensive survey on Indian regional language processing. SN Applied Sciences, 2(7), 1-16.
Hinrichs, E., Kathol, A., & Nakazawa, T. (Eds.). (2020). Complex predicates in nonderivational syntax. BRILL.
Homer, V., & Bhatt, R. (2020). Restructuring and the scope of negation in Hindi-Urdu. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, 5(1).
Humayoun, M., Hammarström, H., & Ranta, A. (2006). Urdu morphology, orthography and lexicon extraction. Chalmers tekniska högskola.
Khokhlova, L., & Zakharin, B. (2020, August). Hindi-Urdu light verbs revisited. In Book of Abstracts (p. 94).
Koul, O. N. (2008). Modern Hindi Grammar. Dunwoody Press 2008.
Kulkarni, A. (2020, August). Borrowing and disappearance of light verbs. In Book of Abstracts (p. 447).
Manetta, E. (2019). Verb-phrase ellipsis and complex predicates in Hindi-Urdu. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 37(3), 915-953.
Maqsood, B., Saleem, T., Aziz, A., & Azam, S. (2019). Grammatical constraints on the borrowing of nouns and verbs in urdu and english. SAGE Open, 9(2), 2158244019853469.
Mohanan, T. (1994). Argument structure in Hindi. Center for the Study of Language (CSLI).
Naseer, A. (2010). Tense and Aspect in the Context of Urdu. International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences, IJECS-IJENS Vol: 10 No: 05.
Newson, M., Hordós, M., Pap, D., Szécsényi, K., Tóth, G., Vincze, V. (2006). Basic English syntax with exercises. Budapest: Bölcsész Konzorcium
Ozarkar, R. (2020). A special case of long distance agreement in Marathi. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, 5(1), 93. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.698
Raza, G. (2011). Sub-categorization Acquisition and classes of Predication in Urdu. Konstanzer Online Publications System (KOPS).
Sardaraz, K. (2020). Syntactical Structure of English and Pashto Prepositions: A Case of IN-ON Vs PUH-KE and PUH-BANDE. sjesr, 3(1), 76-88.
Schmidt, R. L. (1999). Urdu: An Essential Grammar. London: Routledge
Sharif, A. N. (2020). Causative alternation licensing in Urdu: An event structure account (Doctoral dissertation, University of Otago).
Shim, J. Y. (2016). Mixed verbs in code-switching: The syntax of light verbs. Languages, 1(1), 8.
Slade, B. (2020). Verb Concatenation in Asian Linguistics. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
Suleybanova, M. U., Kieva, Z. H., Sultygova, M. M., Gasanova, U. U., & Bidanok, M. M. (2019). Hypotaxis in inflectional and agglutinative languages. Amazonia Investiga, 8(22), 414-421. https://amazoniainvestiga.info/index.php/amazonia/article/view/749/708
Wade, T. (2020). A comprehensive Russian grammar. John Wiley & Sons.
Yusupov, А. F., Galiullina, G. R., Yusupova, N. M., & Kajumova, Z. M. (2018). Grammatical development and functioning of the arab verbal forms in the old Tatar language of the 19th century. Amazonia Investiga, 7(13), 117-122. https://amazoniainvestiga.info/index.php/amazonia/article/view/501/472