The Individual and Combined Effects of PNF Stretching and Plyometric Training on Muscular Power and Flexibility for Volleyball Players
The knowledge gained through this study could help to make plyometric training more effective when Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching added to the workouts without having to isolate strength and flexibility on separate sessions. The aim of this study was to compare the individual and combined effects of 6-week of PNF stretching and plyometric training (PLYOT) in muscular power and flexibility for young volleyball players Thirty-seven male young volleyball players participated in the current study. They were distributed into four groups; PNF (n = 10), PLYOT (n = 10), Combining PNF and PLYOT (COMB) (n = 10), and control group without PNF and PLYOT (CON) (n = 7), they were tested before (PRE) and after (POST) 6-week training for muscular power [i.e. vertical jump (VJ), seated medicine ball throw (SMTH), and rotational power ball throw (RPTH)] and flexibility [i.e. sit& reach test (SRT), shoulder& wrist flexibility test (SWFT), and trunk rotation test (TRT)]. The results have shown significant effects of the time for all study variables (p ≤ 0.05) of all groups except CON group had no significant effects (p ˃ 0.05). There were statistically significant differences favor COMB group (p ≤ 0.05) at the POST evaluation in muscular power variables in comparison with the PNF and PLYOT groups, while no statistically significant differences (p ˃ 0.05) were found between PNF, PLYOT, and COMB in all flexibility variables. In conclusion the combined effect of PNF and PLYOT has surpassed the individual effect of them on muscular power but not on flexibility variables.
Alemdaroglu, U., Koklu, Y., & Koz, M. (2017). The acute effect of different stretching methods on sprint performance in taekwondo practitioners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 57(9), 1104-1110.
Algotsson, M. (2016). Construct validity and test-retest reliability of a rotational maximum strength test and rotational power test in 1080 Quantum. (Dissertation). Retrieved from http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-31060.
Areas, G., Borghi-Silva, A., Lobato, A. N., Silva, A. A., Freire Jr, R. C., & Areas, F. Z. J. B. j. o. p. t. (2013). Effect of upper extremity proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation combined with elastic resistance bands on respiratory muscle strength: a randomized controlled trial. Braz J Phys Ther, 17(6), 541-546.
Ayala F., C. M. D. S., de Baranda P.S., Santonja F. (2015). Acute effects of two different stretching techniques on isokinetic strength and power. J Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte, 8(3), 93-102.
Bullock, G. S., Schmitt, A. C., Chasse, P. M., Little, B. A., Diehl, L. H., & Butler, R. J. (2018). The relationship between trunk rotation, upper quarter dynamic stability, and pitch velocity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 32(1), 261-266.
Caplan, N., Rogers, R., Parr, M. K., Hayes, P. R. J. T. J. o. S., & Research, C. (2009). The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretch training on running mechanics. J Strength Cond Res, 23(4), 1175-1180.
Costa, P. B., Herda, T. J., Herda, A. A., Cramer, J. T. J. M., Sports, S. i., & Exercise. (2014). Effects of dynamic stretching on strength, muscle imbalance, and muscle activation. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 46(3), 586-593.
Fortier, J., Lattier, G., Babault, N. J. S., & Sports. (2013). Acute effects of short-duration isolated static stretching or combined with dynamic exercises on strength, jump and sprint performance. 28(5), e111-e117.
Frederick, A., & Frederick, C. (2017). Stretch to win. Human Kinetics.
Guissard, N., Duchateau, J. J. M., & Medicine, N. O. J. o. t. A. A. o. E. (2004). Effect of static stretch training on neural and mechanical properties of the human plantar‐flexor muscles. 29(2), 248-255.
Hindle, K., Whitcomb, T., Briggs, W., & Hong, J. (2012). Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF): Its mechanisms and effects on range of motion and muscular function. Journal of human kinetics, 31(2012), 105-113.
Islamoglu, I., Atan, T., Unver, S., & Cavusoglu, G. (2017). Effects of Different Durations of Static Stretching on Flexibility, Jumping, Speed and Agility Performance. The Anthropologist, 23(3), 454-461.
Jaffre, C., Courteix, D., Dine, G., Lac, G., Delamarche, P., Benhamou, L. J. J. o. P. E., & Metabolism. (2001). High-impact loading training induces bone hyperresorption activity in young elite female gymnasts. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 14(1), 75-84.
Kay, A. D., Dods, S., & Blazevich, A. J. (2016). Acute effects of contract–relax (CR) stretch versus a modified CR technique. European journal of applied physiology, 116(3), 611-621.
Konrad, A., Gad, M., Tilp, M. J. S. J. o. M., & Sports, S. i. (2015). Effect of PNF stretching training on the properties of human muscle and tendon structures. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 25(3), 346-355.
Kubo, K. J. I. J. o. S., & Science, H. (2005). In vivo elastic properties of human tendon structures in lower limb. 3(Special_Issue_2005), 143-151.
Maffiuletti, N. A., Dugnani, S., Folz, M., Di Pierno, E., Mauro, F. J. M., Sports, S. i., & Exercise. (2002). Effect of combined electrostimulation and plyometric training on vertical jump height. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 34(10), 1638-1644.
Manouras, N., Papanikolaou, Z., Karatrantou, K., Kouvarakis, P., & Gerodimos, V. (2016). The efficacy of vertical vs. horizontal plyometric training on speed, jumping performance and agility in soccer players. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 11(5), 702-709.
Marques, M. C., Van den Tillaar, R., Gabbett, T. J., Reis, V. M., González-Badillo, J. J. J. T. J. o. S., & Research, C. (2009). Physical fitness qualities of professional volleyball players: determination of positional differences. J Strength Cond Res, 23(4), 1106-1111.
McAtee, R. E. (2013). Facilitated stretching. Human kinetics.
McGilvray, J. A., Haslam, R. J. R. Q. f. E., & Sport. (1999). The effects of resistance and plyometric training on the vertical jump and flexibility performance of female dancers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70 (Supplement 1), A17.
Medeiros, D., & Martini, T. J. A. C. C. J. Y. P. T. (2017). Does Stretching Have Long-Term Effects on Muscle Performance. 7(269), 2.
Medeiros, D. M., Cini, A., Sbruzzi, G., Lima, C. S. J. P. t., & practice. (2016). Influence of static stretching on hamstring flexibility in healthy young adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiother Theory Pract, 32(6), 438-445.
Miller, M. G., Herniman, J. J., Ricard, M. D., Cheatham, C. C., & Michael, T. J. (2006). The effects of a 6-week plyometric training program on agility. J Sports Sci Med, 5(3), 459-465.
Minshull, C., Eston, R., Bailey, A., Rees, D., & Gleeson, N. J. E. j. o. s. s. (2014). The differential effects of PNF versus passive stretch conditioning on neuromuscular performance. Eur J Sport Sci, 14(3), 233-241.
Miyamoto, N., Hirata, K., Kimura, N., & Miyamoto-Mikami, E. (2018). Contributions of hamstring stiffness to straight-leg-raise and sit-and-reach test scores. International journal of sports medicine, 39(02), 110-114.
MPTh, R. G., MPTh, S. P. P. J. I. J. o. T., & Research, R. (2016). Plyometric training effect on fexibility in female pubertal gymnasts. 5(1), 37.
Negra, Y., Chaabene, H., Sammoud, S., Bouguezzi, R., Abbes, M. A., Hachana, Y., & Granacher, U. (2017). Effects of plyometric training on physical fitness in prepuberal soccer athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(05), 370-377.
Nelson, A. G., Chambers, R. S., McGown, C. M., Penrose, K. W. J. J. o. O., & Therapy, S. P. (1986). Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation versus weight training for enhancement of muscular strength and athletic performance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 7(5), 250-253.
Nelson, A. G., Kokkonen, J., Arnall, D. A. J. T. J. o. S., & Research, C. (2005). Acute muscle stretching inhibits muscle strength endurance performance. J Strength Cond Res, 19(2), 338-343.
Page, P. J. I. j. o. s. p. t. (2012). Current concepts in muscle stretching for exercise and rehabilitation. Int J Sports Phys Ther, 7(1), 109.
Papadimitriou, K., Loupos, D., Tsalis, G., Manou, B. J. J. o. P. E., & Sport. (2017). Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on swimmers leg mobility and performance. 17(2), 663.
Patil, R. (2016). Plyometric Training Effect on Flexibility in Female Pubertal Gymnasts. International Journal of Therapies and Rehabilitation Research, 5(1), 37-45.
Ramachandran, S., & Pradhan, B. J. I. J. P. P. (2014). Effects of short-term two weeks low intensity plyometrics combined with dynamic stretching training in improving vertical jump height and agility on trained basketball players. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 58(2), 133-136.
Santos, E. J., Janeira, M. A. J. T. J. o. S., & Research, C. (2011). The effects of plyometric training followed by detraining and reduced training periods on explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. J Strength Cond Res, 25(2), 441-452.
Shaji, J., & Isha, S. J. A. A. e. J. M. S. (2009). Comparative analysis of plyometric training program and dynamic stretching on vertical jump and agility in male collegiate basketball player. 2(1), 36-46.
Slimani, M., Chamari, K., Miarka, B., Del Vecchio, F. B., & Chéour, F. (2016). Effects of plyometric training on physical fitness in team sport athletes: a systematic review. Journal of human kinetics, 53(1), 231-247.
Sozbir, K., Willems, Mark E. T., Tiryaki- Sonmez, Gul and Ragauska, P. (2016). Acute effects of contract-relax PNF and static stretching on flexibility, jump performance and EMG activities: A case study. Biology of Exercise, 12(1), 33-55.
Teo, S. Y., Newton, M. J., Newton, R. U., Dempsey, A. R., & Fairchild, T. J. (2016). Comparing the effectiveness of a short-term vertical jump vs. weightlifting program on athletic power development. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 30(10), 2741-2748.
Zöllner, A. M., Abilez, O. J., Böl, M., & Kuhl, E. J. P. o. (2012). Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis. 7(10).