Ombudsman Institute: Basic Models and Problems of Reception in Constitutional Law
In the search for optimal ways of improving the normative foundations and organizational-legal forms of human rights protection, the problem of institutional support of relevant processes is actualized. The protection of human rights is inherently linked to all public-power structures of the mechanism of state power and is possible only in the context of optimal implementation of the principles of the rule of law, separation of powers, democratic, social, rule of law. In Ukraine, in the context of constitutional modernization, the problem of improving the organizational-legal mechanism of human rights protection remains urgent. For this purpose, the Institute of the Ombudsman operates in Ukraine. Its implementation fully meets the tendencies existing in the modern democratic world and is a reaction to those conflicts and contradictions that exist in the field of human rights protection. Nevertheless, the social insecurity of certain sections of the population (children, pensioners, persons with disabilities, servicemen, migrants, internally displaced persons, ethnic minorities, persons belonging to the LGBTI community, entrepreneurs, patients and other categories of citizens) is an indicator of the relevance of the problem and the functioning of national human rights protection mechanisms, including the strengthening of the relevant oversight functions of the Ombudsman. The subject of the research is the problems of reception in the constitutional law of the basic models of organization of the Ombudsman Institute in the mechanism of functioning of the rule of law. The object of the study is the public relations that delve into the human rights protection process and the ombudsman's exclusivity in the relevant processes. The methodological basis of the study are general scientific methods, such as dialectical, comparative-legal, formal-legal, historical, and logical methods of cognition, as well as special and private-law methods. The history of development, the causes, the processes of institutionalization and constitution of the ombudsman services in the modern world, the permanent transformation of their functions and the differentiation of their specialization are evidence of the improvement of the classical system of separation of powers and the constitutional mechanism of its organization. It is argued that the functional isolation, independence, and organizational diversity of the control bodies, first of all, the Ombudsmen, is a testament to the formation of control power, the conceptual idea of which is the existence of a system of measures to ensure control over public authority.
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