Assessment of the conclusions of molecular genetic examination in the investigation of crimes
The importance of molecular genetic examinations which analyze traces of biological origin increases in the practice of the investigation of crimes in Ukraine. One of the important stages of the expert study and its use in the evidence is the evaluation of the expert's conclusion. As a result of studying scientific and methodical literature, as well as materials of criminal cases of premeditated murders, it was established that expert, investigative and judicial evaluation of conclusions of molecular genetic examinations do not fully meet the needs of criminal proceedings in Ukraine.
The work is based on the analysis of the procedural legislation of Ukraine and forensic literature on DNA analysis, the results of the study of the conclusions of molecular genetic examinations in 180 criminal proceedings on deliberate murders, the study of the practice of inviting experts to court to clarify the conclusions of the examination. In the study, a system of methods of scientific knowledge was used: system-structural, comparative-legal, analysis, synthesis, analogy and others.
In order to improve the effectiveness of the evaluation of molecular genetic expertise based on the results of DNA analysis, the expert should formulate accessible conclusions about the origin of biological traces, for which it is necessary to develop criteria for the coincidence of comparable objects. In order to admit the conclusions of the genetic expert as evidence, criminal procedural legislation of Ukraine should be improved by developing special rules for the selection of biological samples for DNA analysis by the investigator, the court and their voluntary giving by citizens. It should also be possible to carry out verification studies at the pre-trial stage of investigation and develop expert methods to solve questions about the mechanism of DNA penetration into objects.
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