Status «ecological» obligations of a flag state as an integral part of the «genuine link» conception

Keywords: ecological obligations, «shore states», MARPOL, United Nations, international convention.

Abstract

The modern legal regime of a flag State’s status “ecological” obligations is composed by a legislation (laws and regulations) of two levels: international and national. The legislation of both the levels is consistent with the generally accepted international rules, standards and recommended practices and procedures, the “UNCLOS’82”, the rights of States and prescribes, inter alia, measures to be taken for the protection and preservation of the marine environment pollution – measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment – the States’ “ecological” obligations. It is generally accepted in international maritime law to dived abovementioned obligations in: status “ecological” obligations of the “shore States”, status “ecological” obligations of the “port States” and status “ecological” obligations of the “flag States”. The research topic is certainly relevant given the almost catastrophic situation due to pollution of the world's oceans and the environment in general. The research methodology includes methods of analysis and synthesis, dogmatic method and comparative law method. This research focuses on the definition of the modern international legal regime of a flag State’s status “ecological” obligations. These obligations form a flag State’s legal status and could be qualified as an integral part of the “genuine link” conception. The author of the article concluded that the current conventions in the field of maritime law aimed at protecting the world's oceans play an important role, but no less important tasks are to improve national legislation of coastal countries, as well as proper implementation of both international and national norms aimed at the protection and restoration of the world's oceans.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Serhii Kuznietsov, Seafarers Training Centre, Ukraine.

PhD in Political Sciences, Director of the Seafarers Training Centre, Ukraine.

References

Arnesen, F., & Bekkedal, T. (2019). Fair wage and working conditions within the European Maritime Space. Oslo: Scandinavian Institute of Maritime Law. https://www.jus.uio.no/nifs/forskning/publikasjonar/artiklar/arnesen-bekkedal-european-maritime-space-october-2019.pdf

Burdzhanadze, N.A. (1997). Legal matters of marine environment protection: UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and Bucharest Convention on the Black Sea Pollution Protection. Soviet Yearbook of Maritime Law, 3, 11 – 16.

Carty, A. (1991). Reason and rhetoric: legal discourse and the common heritage of mankind in the resources of the seabed. Moscow: Mortekhine advertising.

Franco García, M.Á. (2014). Underwater Noise Pollution: Special Reference to the Impact on Cetaceans Produced by the Sonars of Warships. Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental, 33, 34-59, https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=5666011

Gold, E. (1985). Handbook on Marine Pollution. Norway: Nick Facer Publishing.

Golovatiy, S.P. (1984). National legal measures of marine environment protection. Kyiv: Nauk. dumka.

Gómez, Á. (2016). Safety at Sea. AENOR: Revista de la normalización y la certificación, 317, 36-39. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=5603514

International Maritime Organization (IMO). (1973). Establishment of the Marine Environment Protection Committee: Resolution A.297(VIII). https://wwwcdn.imo.org/localresources/en/KnowledgeCentre/IndexofIMOResolutions/AssemblyDocuments/A.297(8).pdf

International Maritime Organization (IMO). (1973). International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, [“MARPOL’73”]. http://www.mar.ist.utl.pt/mventura/Projecto-Navios-I/IMO-Conventions%20%28copies%29/MARPOL.pdf

International Maritime Organization (IMO). (1997). Protocol of 1997 to Amend the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships [“MARPOL’73/78/97”]. http://www.mar.ist.utl.pt/mventura/Projecto-Navios-I/IMO-Conventions%20%28copies%29/MARPOL.pdf

International Maritime Organization (IMO). (2005). International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. http://www.mar.ist.utl.pt/mventura/Projecto-Navios-I/IMO-Conventions%20%28copies%29/MARPOL.pdf

International Maritime Organization (IMO). (2007). Short titles of conventions and protocols. Report of the Marine Environmental Protection Committee on its fifty-sixth session (MEPC 56/14). http://www.crs.hr/Portals/0/docs/eng/imo_iacs_eu/imo/mepc_reports/MEPC56.pdf

Ioseliani, T. (2015). Generally Accepted International Rules, Regulations, Procedures and Practices in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 and the IMO Mandatory Instruments in Regards Maritime Safety. Georgia: The Nippon Foundation of Japan. https://www.un.org/oceancapacity/sites/www.un.org.oceancapacity/files/tamara_2015-12-18_final.pdf

Ivanov, G.G. (1984). Merchant shipping in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Moscow: Mortekhine advertising.

Kiselev, V.A. (1975). The national legislation on preventing pollution of sea. Moscow: Transport.

Kiselev, V.A. (1986). Prevention of pollution by dumping. Moscow: Transport. http://lawlibrary.ru/izdanie12835.html

Kolodkin, A.L., Kiselev, V.A., & Savaskov, P.V. (1984). Some provisions of the international legal status of the World Ocean in the light of the new UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Moscow: Mortekhine advertising.

Magerramov, A.A. (2010). Preservation of the atmospheric air. International public and private law, 3(54), 14 – 16.

Ortiz, A.A., Sucozhañay, D., Vanegas, P., & Martínez-Moscoso, A. (2020). A Regional Response to a Global Problem: Single Use Plastics Regulation in the Countries of the Pacific Alliance. Sustainability, 12, 1-21. https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/19/8093/pdf

Parkinson, F. (1991). The genesis of the “Freedom of the Seas” as reflected in the history of the doctrine of international law. Moscow: Mortekhine advertising.

Roy, P.C. (2020). Dangers that Lurk in the Sea. Spills and Oil Slicks. Mediterráneo económico, 33, 253-267. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=7663545

Sapozhnikov, V.I. (1984). The international agreements on marine environment protection. Naukova dumka, 1, 8 – 21.

Solski, J.J. (2021). The Genesis of Article 234 of the UNCLOS. Ocean Development & International Law, 52(1), 1-19. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00908320.2020.1835026

United Nations (1982). Convention on the Law of the Sea. https://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf

Uzunov, D. (1984). Regime of navigation in the light of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Moscow: Mortekhine advertising.

Vinogradov, S.V. (1987). International law and preservation of the atmosphere. Moscow: Nauka.
Published
2021-12-17
How to Cite
Kuznietsov, S. (2021). Status «ecological» obligations of a flag state as an integral part of the «genuine link» conception. Amazonia Investiga, 10(47), 190-196. https://doi.org/10.34069/AI/2021.47.11.19
Section
Articles