The yield and baking quality of Siberia-bred spring soft wheat varieties in the north forest-steppe of the Tyumen region
Over the past century and at the beginning of the current one, Siberian breeders have been intensively breeding spring soft wheat for improving the yield and grain quality. The ecologically and geographically diverse source material has been used at the breeding and educational institutions of the region. Thus, in the severe Siberian conditions, the wheat gene pool has been painstakingly created. It has been very difficult here to solve the problem of improving the grain quality, but, given the determination and the talent of many breeders and geneticists, the gene pool of valuable and strong wheat varieties has been created. As a result, being formerly a consumer of food wheat, Siberia has now become a region producing high-quality grain for domestic use and sale in the foreign market. The gene pool of spring soft wheat, which is so rich in the volume and quality, has not been studied in full, and not used throughout Siberia. In 2013 – 2015, sixteen valuable and strong varieties of Siberia-bred wheat had been studied in the northern zone of the Tyumen region on the experimental field of the Northern Trans-Ural State Agricultural University. It has been found that the average productivity of the early-ripening Novosibirskaya 16, Tulun 15, and Polyushko varieties over the three years amounted to 2.52 – 2.89 t/ha, and was close to the yield (2.35 – 3.10 t/ha) of the middle-early ripening varieties. In the midseason-ripening group, the Alyoshina and Altayskaya 110 and 325 varieties exceeded the Tyumen-bred standard Lutescens 70 by 0.23 – 0.69 t/ha with the yield of the latter being 2.54 t/ha. In terms of the content and quality of gluten, the following varieties stood out: Iren, Novosibirskaya 15, Tulun 15, Polyushko, Omskaya 36, Skala, Boyevchanka, Pamyati Vavenkova, Tyumenskaya 80, Alyoshina, and Altayskaya 325. In terms of baking properties (3.7 – 4.2 points), the following varieties stood out: Iren, Novosibirskaya 15, 29, 31, Polyushko, Skala, Boyevchanka, Pamyati Vavenkova, Tyumenskaya 80, Tulunskaya 12, and Altayskaya 325, which can be used as the source material for further wheat breeding.
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