Approaches to risk assessment and selection of water treatment technologies to provide consumers with quality drinking water
The processes of organizing centralized drinking water supply for the population are based on the requirements of sanitary legislation and technical regulation, depending on the quality of available water sources on the applied technological solutions in the field of water treatment, as well as on the infrastructure of water supply processes. At the same time, the quality of drinking water from centralized systems is one of the most important criteria for the operation of enterprises in the city water supply and sewage system. The inconsistency of the quality of drinking water with centralized water supply, regularly noted in the reports of Federal Agency for Consumer Protection (Rospotrebnadzor), indicates problems of ensuring the safety of the population, and, on the other hand, incurs additional financial costs for the water supply company. It should be noted that the preservation and assessment of the quality potential of water supply sources, which under the influence of anthropogenic factors is under constant threat of degradation, is also an important factor in influencing the organization of centralized drinking water supply from the point of view of standardizing technological and infrastructural solutions. Legislative requirements in the field of drinking water quality make it extremely difficult to fulfill obligations to supply the population with drinking water of the required quality. It should be noted that the existing regulatory documents regulating the methodology of sanitary - hygienic assessment of water quality do not fully take into account the modern technological capabilities of the facilities for the preparation and transportation of drinking water, including change in emissions of pollutants caused by anthropogenic or natural causes.
Despite the significant scientific and methodological amount of data regarding the formation of requirements for centralized drinking water supply, the issues of ensuring the required water quality remain insufficiently studied. There is a need for interconnection of standardization of approaches to the selection of technological solutions and equipment, the formation and management of infrastructure facilities, evaluation of the effectiveness of design and operational components of water supply systems, sufficient and necessary levels of sanitary and technological safety, based including on economic efficiency and enterprise capabilities. The principles of designing new infrastructure facilities and centralized drinking water supply facilities and reconstruction of existing ones should be based on the proposed integrated life cycle cost methodology, which allows optimizing production and investment costs of urban facilities.
Issues of providing high-quality drinking water through centralized water supply systems are resolved separately from the standpoint of hygiene requirements, technological and organizational solutions. This article proposes approaches that choose an effective water treatment technology, taking into account the assessment of health risks, positioning the technical factors of the water supply system and the economic assessment of the technology, taking into account the above points.
Chemistry. Environment. Health. Edited by Academician N.F. Izmerov, 400 p. ISBN 978-5-9909205-0-7.
Decree of the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation of March 14, 2002 N 10 "On the Enactment of the Sanitary Rules and Norms" of the Sanitary Protection Zone for Water Supply and Drinking Water Pipes. SanPiN 18.104.22.1680-02 (as amended on September 25, 2014) ("SanPiN 22.214.171.1240-02. 2.1.4. Drinking water and water supply for populated areas. Sanitary protection zones for water supply sources and drinking water supply systems. Sanitary rules and norms", approved by the Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation on February 26, 2002) (Registered in the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation on April 24, 2002, No 3399). Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_13040/
Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 06.01.2015 N 10 "On the procedure for the production control of the quality and safety of drinking water, hot water" (together with the "Rules for the production control of the quality and safety of drinking water, hot water"). Available at: https://legalacts.ru/doc/postanovlenie-pravitelstva-rf-ot-06012015-n-10/
Federal Law of December 7, 2011 N 416-FZ “On Water Supply and Sanitation”. Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_122867/
GOST 2761-84. Sources of centralized drinking water supply. Hygienic, technical requirements and selection rules "(approved by the Decree of the State Standard of the USSR dated November 27, 1984 N 4013) (edited June 1, 1988). Available at: http://base.garant.ru/3923124/
Grodzenskiy S.Ya., Chesalin A.N., Nilov M.Yu., Agafonov A.N. (2019) Modification of the WaldBoost algorithm to improve the efficiency of solving real-time pattern recognition problems. Russian Technology Journal, Vol. 7, No. 5, P. 20-29. Available at: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=41164638.
Grodzensky S.Ya., Popov D.A. (2014) The Shekhart-Deming cycle and the latest quality management tools. Vestnik MGTU MIREA, No. 2 (3), p. 230-234.
Krasnova M.G., Samburskiy G.A. (2018) Technology analysis. aimed at improving the technological process of drinking water purification Scientific and analytical journal "Innovation and Investment", ISSN 2307-180X, No. 6, P. 202-207.
National project "Ecology". Available at: http://project.rkomi.ru/system/attachments/uploads/000/125/284/original/NP_Ekologiya.pdf
Prodos O.A., Shipilov A.A., Samburskiy G.A. (2018) The system of preliminary assessment of water supply and sanitation projects sent for state examination Scientific and Technical Journal “Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering”, Moscow, No. 5, P. 22-26
R 126.96.36.1990-04 "Guidelines for assessing the risk to public health when exposed to chemicals polluting the environment". Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc&base=EXP&n=340210#04638957234828842 .
Samburskiy G.A., Pestov S.M. (2017) Technological and organizational aspects of the processes of obtaining drinking water quality. Publishing Solutions, 184 p. ISBN 978-5-4483-5369-7.
Samburskiy G.A., Bazhenov V.I. (2018) Development of a methodology for calculating the life cycle cost of equipment, systems and structures for water supply and sanitation Scientific and Technical Journal "Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering", Moscow, No. 2, P. 10-19.
Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for soil and soil quality SanPiN188.8.131.527-03. Available at: https://legalacts.ru/doc/postanovlenie-glavnogo-gosudarstvennogo-sanitarnogo-vracha-rf-ot-17042003-n_2/
SanPiN 184.108.40.2064-01 Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for water quality of centralized drinking water supply systems. Quality control. Hygienic requirements for ensuring the safety of hot water systems. Available at: http://files.stroyinf.ru/Index2/1/4294846/ 4294846957.htm (accessed November 16, 2018).
SanPiN 220.127.116.119-01 "Hygienic requirements" for the protection of groundwater from pollution". Available at: http://64.rospotrebnadzor.ru/en/432/-/asset_publisher/K4qq/document/id/114433
SanPiN 18.104.22.1680-00. 2.1.5. Sanitation of populated areas, sanitary protection of water bodies. Hygienic requirements for surface water protection. Sanitary rules and norms. Available at: https://legalacts.ru/doc/sanpin- 215980-00-215-vodootvedenie-naselennykh-mest-sanitarnaja /
Spellman F.R. (2014) Handbook for the treatment of natural and waste water. Water supply and sewerage. Translation from English, edited by M.I. Alekseeva. SPb.: TsOP "Profession", 1312 p. ISBN 978—5—9184—053—5.
World Health Organization. Drinking Water Quality Manual, third edition. Volume 1 – Recommendations. Available at: https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3rev/ru/